Is there any paper that looks at the distribution of wages? I'd like to see how many workers are in each percentile of labor income. I know that you could compute it using CPS or US tax data, but I suppose somebody must have done that before..
Based on the 2010 US Census, Wikipedia has pretty much exactly what you seem to be looking for.
A sample graph:
though they of course also have tables and links to more data.
Or if you prefer raw data, the IRS SOI is available for 1996-2012.
And of course there's Piketty and Saez seminal paper on the subject (See Table 5 for their data analogous to the included Wikipedia picture)