When we talk about inflation, it helps to look at where the money goes after it is "printed." More accurately, written down as a loan on another bank's balance sheet.
Let's imagine that the central bank loans a bank 1,000, and has a 10% reserve requirement. That bank can loan out 900 of the original 1,000. The borrower then pays for goods/services, and the person paid deposits the money in their bank.
Now, there is 1,900 in the system; The original 1,000 which exists as 100 in bank reserves and 900 loaned out, plus the 900 deposited. Inflation, therefore, is not only from money printing, but also the ability of fractional reserve banking to 'create' money through the loan process described above. If you do the math, a 10% reserve requirement will ultimately let you multiply the original money by a factor of 10, a 5% reserve requirement will multiply it by 20, etc.
With this in mind, here's how you can speed or slow inflation:
1) By changing the monetary base, you can change the base amount of money that can be multiplied in the fractional reserve system. So, when a central bank creates new money, the total possible amount of money in the system increases proportionately. However, the money must be loaned out and re-deposited many times to reach the highest possible amount: hence the next two items.
2) By changing the reserve requirement, you can permit banks to loan out more of the money they have, which permits more money to be created via the banking system. In our above case, with 1,000 to start, changing the reserve requirement from 5% to 10% would decrease the total possible money supply from 20,000 to 10,000. This is as powerful or moreso than the original money printing.
3) Finally, the multiplication mentioned above can't happen if the money isn't loaned out. Therefore, with very low interest rates, borrowing is easy, the money supply expands via fractional reserve banking, and we get inflation. If you raise the interest rate significantly, people stop borrowing, start saving and paying off debt, and the money supply drops.
All three can affect inflation/deflation, but the key here is that borrowing drives the money supply as much as the central bank's creating money drives it. Since banks borrow money from the central bank, they must lend at higher rates than they are borrowing in order to turn a profit, so setting the interest rate is a potent means of encouraging or halting inflation.
Finally, for "what about printing while raising rates?" If the central bank is creating money to buy government debt, it is likely that the high interest rates are meant to prop up the value of that debt, so the government can continue to make expenditures. At the same time, it's nearly impossible for civilians to borrow. I don't know the monetary rules for the Ukraine, but I will speculate that their central bank is trying to keep the government funded (given the political situation) by diverting money away from other sectors.