I wonder whether there exists (even a young) theory of financial regulation in the sense of "how to regulate a financial institution/system in an optimal manner"? I mean, there is experience about several situations which came across in the past, like bank runs, liquidity shortages, insufficient quality of regulatory capital etc. resulting in a crisis and, thus, representing a deviation from the optimal functioning of the financial system. This is then addressed by a regulatory reform which is designed to avoid exactly the experienced situation again in the future, i.e. it is specific to the current problem at hand. Is there something more general? The current approach focuses on ex-post fixing crucial issues, but does there exist a formal normative model or theory about regulating systems like the financial system? So far, I didn't found something about that but maybe others have? If not yet, maybe there exists some theory about other kinds of systems which one could apply in a modified version like Cybernetics for mechanical systems or the like?
Jean Tirole just won the Nobel Prize for his studies in regulation in different markets, including the banking market.
This is a good question to ask, and the short answer is no there isn't. There probably should be, but the system itself is extremely complex and at the moment this is really the bleeding edge of research in Economics. It's an extremely involved subject, in no small part because the financial system itself is a moving target - it keeps being changed by regulation.
Tirole's research on market regulation, is a part of the larger puzzle, which properly framed would include detailed analysis of the banking system, the behaviours of different kinds of financial instrument, involvement of company structure and regulation, and probably the phase of moon. Well human behaviour has to be included somehow.