With all these types of debt, there are various descriptions rather than standard definitions, and sometimes the same thing can be labelled with different names or the same name used for different things. In addition, they can be measure gross or net, and there will be questions of how money owed by one part of the public sector to another is treated.
National debt can mean the debt of the national or central government. This is how it was used for example with the debt the British government built up during the Napoleonic wars, which became the risk-free asset basis of 19th century banking
Government debt can mean the combined debt of different layers of government, so combines national, municipal and other levels
Public debt may include government debt and debt of other parts of the public sector, such as public corporations
None of these explicitly appear in the balance of payments statistics, especially as most public debt is owed to the domestic private sector.
What does appear is in the international investment position, where all debts (public or private) owed to foreign residents or governments appear as liabilities. Payments of interest to foreigners count as debits in the primary income part of the current account, while borrowing or repayments of principal are flows in the financial account.