When the government prints more money, then how does this extra money end up in the hands of the people, they still are being paid the same amount of salary annually by their employers.
This is really two questions:
How does the money get into the economy? The US government increases the money supply by having the Fed buy things with dollars that did not previously exist. Typically they buy financial assets, pushing their price up and putting new money into the hands of the previous owners of those securities (often the US treasury, which means it is injected into the economy in the form of government spending).
How do individuals get this money if their incomes are fixed? For a given individual, their income may be fixed in the short run. However, across the economy there are many people whose incomes fluctuate with sales or who are up for raises that depend on sales or profit. Or who get a higher wage when they change jobs. As the money supply increases, consumers have more money in hand and spend more money, raising wages for those whose wages can go up using these mechanisms. Your intuition is right about people with truly fixed wages, though: in the short run, they do not participate in the money supply increase. This is why people on a fixed income (like elderly people living on a pension) hate inflation.
Overall inflation shifts wealth from lenders to debtors and from those with fixed incomes to those with adjustable incomes.
why does the price of the goods increase?
The price of a good is the equilibrium between the people buying and the people selling. A change in the money supply does not change how many goods there are to sell but it does change how many dollars the people buying them have. If people have more money, they will be willing to pay more, so the price goes up.