How can governments incentivise NGOs and economic consulting firms to invest in national reserve conservation? I guess this would be more political, but what are the more economic aspects of trying to get corporations involved?
There are several possible routes to get conservation investment into national reserves, i.e. geographic areas that are designated for special protection and environmental conservation.
The government could set up a fund that rewarded the protection and enhancement of the reserves; by guaranteeing the returns on investment, then investors would be drawn in.
The government could specify that investment in national reserve conservation was a requirement for other rewarding activities: for example, it could specify that if a corporation wanted to win government contracts, it had to invest at least x% of its turnover in protecting national reserves. Or that planning permission was linked to such investment.
It could create special tax incentives for such investment: for example, the company's tax burden might get reduced by amount equivalent to a fixed percentage of the investment in the national reserve.
I suspect that in any case, an expert panel would be needed, to assess whether something would represent beneficial investment or not; and if it is, then what the suitable size of return on the investment should be.
And any system is prone to gaming, so the scheme would need to put in place measures to detect and curb such gaming.