I noticed many textbooks in undergraduate microeconomics cover the impacts of taxation but hardly any go in depth about the types of tax (unit tax vs proportionate tax). My question is, is there any microeconomic texts cover a broad range and in depth topics in applied microeconomics?
A classic on public choice and taxation theory is
"The Power to Tax: Analytic Foundations of Fiscal Constitution" by Brennan and Buchanan
Really interesting book and relatively easy read.
If taxation is your main interest (making this question different from others on this site), perhaps the best book around is the 1980's classic by Atkinson and Stiglitz, Lectures in Public Economics. There is an updated version. See the Table of Contents here.