There are still a number of car makers, so at this point it is NOT a monopolistic sector. Barriers to entry are also reduced globally (Asia) due to a decrease in the cost to make a car. I do understand your point on new software, however, the cost of vehicles with the newest and best software is still high to the extent that there is a semi competitive market for individuals who can't afford the newest software. At this point, we an oligopoly. Even if you consider new electric vehicles, multiple players (BMW, AUDI, GM, obviously TESLA, and some Asian companies) are even getting into that market, and the costs are sky high. As costs fall, you will see a scenario in which the marginal cost to entering the market will begin to come closer to the marginal benefit, which will lead more players into the market, which is what happened post model T. It is a similar scenario, just with 21st century technology. The economics are the same. Instead of the model t, we have teslas model s coming, but just like with the model t, we could predict that the market will become more saturated, resembling more of an oligopoly. Google, Microsoft, and Apple are not comparable in that regard. I can only do so many things with a MAC until I HAVE TO GET a Microsoft (as a programmer). However, a car is a car. Slightly different software won't give you a monopoly, because of how individuals use software, compared to how individuals use a vehicle. There are relative substitutes to a model S. There is no substitute to C# with Microsoft if I have to use C#. There is no substitute to SWIFT on IOS if I HAVE TO USE Swift.