I'm looking at the Penn World Table 9.0 data, and find that the "Share of merchandise imports at current PPPs" (csh_m) can be negative. For example,

   country  year  csh_m
   <chr>   <dbl>  <dbl>
 1 Aruba   1970. -0.485
 2 Aruba   1971. -0.459
 3 Aruba   1972. -0.436
 4 Aruba   1973. -0.441

My initial thought is that the share of import (csh_m) here actually means "net import as share of GDP." However, this is not correct, because share of import (csh_m) and share of export (csh_x) don't have the same magnitude.

   country  year  csh_m csh_x
   <chr>   <dbl>  <dbl> <dbl>
 1 Aruba   1970. -0.485 0.427
 2 Aruba   1971. -0.459 0.435
 3 Aruba   1972. -0.436 0.441
 4 Aruba   1973. -0.441 0.477
  1. Where can I find documentation explaining the construction of csh_m and csh_x from the Penn World Table?

  2. If a want to construct a variable of trade openness, should I add the absolute values of csh_m and csh_x?


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