From what I understand about Boserup's theories, she claims that when populations grow and near the carrying capacity of whatever habitat they live in, businesses will have incentive to invest in new technologies that boost the efficiency of resource extraction and thus raising the carrying capacity (food production will keep up with population growth).
Is there a more specific way to explain why businesses have more incentive to invest in technologies, other than its "demand-driven"? That's the best I can come up with right now. Technologies often require investments to be made before they become commercially viable, and even then, they incur further costs as businesses have to spend money replacing capital and training workers to use the tech. Surely, if this eventually yields a profit however, why would businesses only invest in tech once overpopulation threatens? Why would they just do it whenever they can?