Suppose we want to model a real-world phenomenon as an $n$-player Prisoner's Dilemma.
To be more specific, suppose we use RM Dawes' paper "The commons dilemma game: An n-person mixed-motive game with a dominating strategy for defection, 1973" which generally formalize the Prisoner's Dilemma for $n$ players along with a tragedy of the commons (Hardin's tragedy 1968).
Although modelling might seem "easy," how one can properly analyze in Game theory? How can we justify the validity of the game with the real world?
Also, even if we model the real-world phenomenon as a Prisoner's Dilemma, what would be some of the potential solutions to prevent the tragedy?
To be more exact, what are some of the standard methodologies to prevent universal defection?
I'd appreciate any help.