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First of all, let me apologize if the coming questions may sound stupid to expert. I am no expert in economics, I have no training nor I have followed any traditional curse.

I am just curious (and puzzled) and I couldn't find any answer to the questions that will follow.

As far as I have understood (and I may have misunderstood completely), broadly speaking, money is created by central banks and landed to govs with an interest and creating debt.

Now, let's make a very simple example, let's imagine a world made by 10 countries and 1 central bank. The central bank gives 10B (billions) to each country (100B in total) at a 1% interest rate.

At the end of the year, the world owes 101B.

  • Where is this extra 1B coming from?
  • Since it was never created in the first place, how can it be paid back?
  • If it turns out that the world cannot actually ever pay back the full debt, then why do we care? (what is the use of it?)

Of course, the countries are in business with each other, during the year some will gain money, some will lose money. The countries that managed to gain that 1% can pay back the interest (but hardly the full debt). In general, for each 1% gained by some country, others must have lost that money.

So it appears to me that with such a design 1) the debt cannot ever be paid back, 2) someone must go bankrupt in the long run and 3) the debt can only grow over time (since it cannot be fully paid back).

Is that true or am I missing something?

Just to be clear, I get why we need money. I don’t get why we need debt. Wouldn’t capitalism work as well if central banks could just distribute money around as needed without asking them back?

Note: It has been pointed out that this question could be a duplicate of this one. However, I think these questions are fundamentally different. While the linked post does explain the mechanism of money and debt creation, it doesn't shine light one WHY do we care about debt, nor whether or not it is possible to ever pay back the world debt of it is destined to steadily increase over time.

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    $\begingroup$ Possible duplicate of How is the interest on fractional reserve money creation paid? $\endgroup$ – EnergyNumbers May 7 at 14:35
  • $\begingroup$ Why the downvote? $\endgroup$ – alec_djinn May 7 at 14:35
  • $\begingroup$ @EnergyNumbers It is not the same question even if the topic partially overlaps. $\endgroup$ – alec_djinn May 7 at 14:37
  • $\begingroup$ It's a duplicate because the answers there, answer your question here. $\endgroup$ – EnergyNumbers May 7 at 22:09
  • $\begingroup$ The WHY DO WE CARE part is fully missing. $\endgroup$ – alec_djinn May 8 at 5:48
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So there are a couple of things you want to consider:

1st: It is not true that if some country gains 1% some other country must have lost that 1% of economic growth. The economy is not a zero-sum game where the gains of one person are the losses of another one. In fact, usually, it is the opposite. Think about it this way, if the US grows by a lot it also means that they will buy more things from other countries so these countries will probably also grow faster.

2nd: Money is just the means by which we keep track of, and do transactions. At the end, what really matters is how much stuff is produced (goods or services). That is why if some country produces more things, everyone can benefit from it.

I do understand your logic that if the Bank produces 100B of coins how can they expect to get back 101B? Once you think of it in terms of stuff, the puzzle is resolved as follows:

  • The bank lends you the money so you can buy and plant seeds (these are the 10B), they expect to get back some of the benefits from this productive project after you produce apples (they could directly ask to pay back in apples, but this would be impractical, that's one of the reasons we use money, so instead they ask you for the 10.1B). Of course, if the bank does not print more money where will the .1B come from? Well, indeed the bank will never ask for 1% interest if they know there is no physical way to actually pay it back.
  • What really happens is that the bank understands that if an economy is growing, she needs to constantly be printing money, so people can easily do and keep track of all the transactions they do. Therefore, when they ask for the 1% interest, first this is possible, because there is more money out there in the economy, and second, they choose how much interest to charge in order to reflect that they expect you to do something productive with the money (interest also depend, of course, on how risky is your project, and other factors).

I am over-looking the whole issue of inflation to keep things simple and explain the main logic of why banks (including the central bank) charges interests. Whenever you think about whether a debt can be paid or not; the relevant question is not if there is enough money out there to pay it. Rather the relevant question is if the money loaned is being used in a productive way so that it can later pay the interests. And if the answer is no, we care because that means that the money loaned is being wasted, instead.

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  • $\begingroup$ In the sample I made, the extra 1B is not there jet. So you say that the bank will print more money to allow the countries to pay have that extra 1B? Won’t that 1B have also an interest? How to cover that? Why do we even need interest if we need extra money to be printed to pay it back? $\endgroup$ – alec_djinn May 8 at 6:06
  • $\begingroup$ Also, mathematically I don’t get your first point. Given a fixed amount of money, if one gains, another must lose. Else you continue to print money but then is the same, if one gains, another must ask for more debt. Am I wrong? Is there any scenario in which all the parties have more money they started with and no debt? $\endgroup$ – alec_djinn May 8 at 6:12
  • $\begingroup$ I understand your confusion, money is really tricky, and you can spend a full semester thinking and understanding why we need money in the first place, why do we need to print more money constantly, etc. My point is that interests are not about the actual coins you get back, but rather about the extra value (measured in terms of stuff, not money) that you get as a reward from lending someone money). $\endgroup$ – Regio May 8 at 15:38
  • $\begingroup$ Probably the easiest is to assume there is no money in the economy, even in this barter economy, if I were to lend you some resources, say a piece of my land for a couple of years, not only would I want that piece of land back at the end of those years, but also some of the benefits from what you produced on it. This is the interest. Why do I want this interest, because otherwise I could have done something productive with that land, so I won't lend it to you unless you compensate me. Printing money is not what motivates interest, nor is necessary to have interest. $\endgroup$ – Regio May 8 at 15:41
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    $\begingroup$ I don't know why you refuse to see money and stuff as interchangeable. @Giskard 's point is that interest rates are not there in order to receive more coins (whether this is mathematically possible or not. In your example if no more money is created - though there are multiple ways it can be created- then it cannot be repaid), but rather interest if there in order to receive more stuff from the resources you lent. If money had no counterpart with real stuff, we wouldn't even need money. So interest are there to provide good incentives for borrowing and lending in terms of real stuff not coins $\endgroup$ – Regio May 9 at 15:09

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