In international relationships, often the interacting agents are countries. For example, countries negotiate, sign agreements, give loans to each other, trade, etc. Thus it is interesting whether these interactions are analyzed analogously to economic interactions between individuals, starting with the assumption that each country has a utility function.
Utility functions of countries are mentioned the context of a fair division procedure called adjusted winner. This procedure has been applied (hypothetically) to some international agreements, such as the Israeli-Egypt peace treaty, the Spratley islands disputes, and the Panama Canal treaty. In each of these cases, the authors assume that each of the two involved countries has a cardinal utility function over the debated issues, and apply the procedure to find a fair and efficient agreement.
My question is: are there other papers in international economics that assume such 'utility function' of countries?