Is there a name for a consumption tax that basically captures the GDP (all goods and services produced in the nation)?
Value-Added Taxes (VAT) are supposed to capture most goods and services produced in the private sector, but there can be exceptions within a country’s laws.
Even if the exceptions were eliminated, there are some non-market components to GDP that would be missed (e.g. imputed values, like the “rental value of owner-occupied housing”). (You need to go into each country’s GDP definition to find the list of imputations.)