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My question is the following:

Let's say a person has two career choices. He would be succesful in both, but in one of them he is slightly better and thus he will do better. So let's say career A will bring him a utility of 10 and career B a utility of 9.

So career A will bring him a 1 net utility benefit, due to the opportunity cost of 9 of pursuing career B.

Now suppose that for whatever reason, career B is not a choice anymore for him.

Is he now better off, from the fact that his net utility benefit is 10 and not 1? Why or why not?

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If you measure how well off he is by his utility, then no. His utility is 10 in both scenarios.

The fact that career A is open to him increases his utility more in the second scenario than in the first scenario, this is what the "net utility benefit" shows you.

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