I'm an undergraduate from India studying in an university controlled by the Central government. I've experienced the same longing for a proofs class now that we are starting advanced microeconomics,a lot of doubts especially on the abstract calculus used to define certain slopes and moulding that mathematical definition into statements relating to decisions, and back and forth again and again for a new topic will most probably give more doubts than what people consider normal. That doesn't mean one is not intelligent enough, that only means that one is questioning the entire foundation of the theory and starting from the ground up. This quest will require one to familiarize himself/herself with proof making and establishing rigorous mathematical statements that act as stepping stones to extract results.
So in my view, the reason why such an exposure isn't given early on is to instill a certain clarity in the student. Knowing what to prove is a pre-requisite to proving something. Learning what theories have to offer and accepting or rejecting them with whatever reasons you might have will enable you to look at the final result that is being established here so when you touched and felt enough theory, tools to prove/disprove them are provided to you to use as per your imagination.
A significant level of familiarity with theoretical concepts happens at mid-masters or late undergraduate level.
Another reason is the eligibility to join the course, if you've spent your high school exploring literature, you will be strongly advised to not take a math major. Here, in India, you won't be allowed to, because the eligibility criteria for joining a math course dictates that you must have passed your high school math with a specific percentage that is deemed enough by the university(it differs from uni to uni).
For Economics, we allow anyone with any specialisation in high school to join the course. The ones who end up joining are usually those who don't have a strong math background, and thus the professors take more time to familiarize them with the study of economics before giving them access to tools that create new theories.
"You get the keys when you learn how to drive"