I do not know of any serious economist who would think that monetary variables are not to great extent determined by the decisions of central banks.
Monetary quantities depend on what the price level is which is in turn determined by the money market equilibrium. The money market equilibrium, in its simplest form is given by equation of exchange (See Mankiw Macroeconomics pp 87) as:
Where $M$ is the money supply, $V$ velocity of money, $P$ price level and $Y$ output.
Solving for price level and log-linearizing (so $\%$ changes in right hand side variables give us the $\%$ change in $P$) we get:
$$\ln P = \ln M + \ln V - \ln Y. $$
First observation that you can clearly see from the above is that technology growth or trade do not generally cause inflation. Both trade and technological growth expand production possibilities of our economies and hence they generally lead to higher real output $Y$. This causes deflation not inflation. Inflation is positive change in price level but increase in output causes decrease in price level.
The velocity depends on what nominal interest rate is so this can be affected by central bank, although velocity can depend also on other factors so it is not fully under its control.
What the money supply is, is completely exogenously given by central bank. Some countries can have institutional restrictions/caps on how and when central bank can increase money supply but these are not economic restrictions and in principle central bank can set $M$ to any value it wants on interval $[0,\infty)$.
Setting the theory aside empirically there is strong relationship between inflation and changes in the money supply. For example, consider the two scatterplot below (from Mankiw Macroeconomics pp 91-92). The first plot shows the relationship between money supply growth in the US and inflation in the US at different points in time (figure 1) and the second one does that internationally for averages for period 1999 to 2007 (figure 2). As you can clearly see data indicate very strong positive relationship. In addition you can see the same strong relationship between nominal interest rates and inflation. These data support also the theory from the above. Of course, correlation does not immediately tells you what the direction of causality is (but these are differenced data so the correlation is definitely not spurious and indicative of some relationship), but there are further academic studies that show that there is without doubt causal relationship between money supply and inflation, and also interest rates and inflation (for example see Maune, Matanda, Mundonde, 2020;; Barsky, 1987; Mankiw 2019; Romer: Advanced Macroeconomics 4th ed; Grauwe & Polan, 2005; and sources cited therein).
Figure 1:Historical Data on U.S. Inflation and Money Growth
Figure 2: International Data on Inflation and Money Growth
Figure 3: Inflation and Nominal Interest Rates Across Countries