Build a balance sheet:
Assets = Liabilities + Equity
Assume a simplified government budget constraint:
Deficit Spending = New Money + New Debt - Taxes
Assume that spending is to accumulate assets on the balance sheet. So to accumulate assets without spending new money or new debt into an economy over a period the government must run a tax surplus. The government would accumulate equity claims instead of matching debt to assets with no change of equity.
Taxes that transfer money from non-government to government savings accounts kept on the books of the aggregate bank amount to a zero-sum transfer of savings from non-government to government. What public purpose is served if the government accumulates significant financial savings in the aggregate bank sector? The benefit from taxes or borrowing or money issue is the government spending and using assets wisely for public purposes. There is no benefit from government financial saving because society discounts nature at the interest rate and creates financial relations as we go along from past to present to future.
One famous case study for debt financed purchase of asset is the Louisiana purchase where USA bought large territory claimed by France:
Then the public benefit of debt or tax financed purchase could be debated in the political process whether one is a voter, citizen, or economist because no one had a definitive answer to the ethical question what is the public good and how should the government use finance to cause the public good?
However if the United States government issues debt just to accumulate a financial savings account, that is, a debt claim against some other non-government sector, then there could be adverse consequences which are associated with government corruption and bad public policies.
Currently in the United States the American families owe over $1 trillion in student loans which are financed by the issue of Treasury securities held as assets by some other non-government units. So the federal government acts like a bank or financial intermediary when it subsidizes the university system via direct federal loan policy in this way and the working class families with student debt may or may not be able to service and pay down debt via income flows in aggregate.
In terms of the financial float in a banking region the bankruptcy rate and net repayment of debt destroys financial assets (and liabilities) while the credit dealer systems generate new financial assets and matching liabilities in some other sector or unit. Funding government via taxes either enables the private credit systems to function better or may impair the function of the private systems depending on your theory for how financial systems operate in a case study. When the United States ran the so-called Clinton surplus there is a Congressional report studying the problems caused in the financial sectors if the persistent surplus retires the Treasury securities. The Treasury securities are the backbone of credit dealer markets in the global economy.