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The discussion usually revolves around issues such as product design, cultural awareness, etc. I wonder what the fundamental economic barriers are.

I see a fundamental issue e.g. in transaction costs and economies of scale: reusing each single good requires an individual assessment of its qualities to confirm that it's fit for purpose, including for liability and insurance reasons. New goods on the other hand are produced in standardised processes which can be optimised, controlled, certified, etc. The efficiencies involved in producing new goods are higher than the cost (mining, taxes) of introducing new resources to the system.

I wonder where I can read more about this fundamental (generic) economic analysis of the barriers to a circular economy?

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