The question at present is too long, and offers a misleading view of equity analysis.
The first thing to note is that actual prices during a trading day can move around for any number of reasons. High frequency trading algorithms failing, “fat finger” errors, as well as speculative bubbles happen. No serious observer of financial markets is unaware of this reality.
However, not many investment professionals suggest that they can predict all such events. They instead market some “system” for making trading decisions that they use (which includes just buying the index).
The standard starting point for financial analysis is discounted cash flow analysis. Even if you cannot predict the traded price on a given future day, you still hope to get cash flows from the security. For a bond, cash flows are generally known (although some payments can be conditional on other requirements). For equities, cash flows are less easily predicted.
The sources of cash flows include:
- share buybacks,
- a payment when the firm is taken over (or recovery from winding down operations).
The first two are cash payments out of the firm’s earnings and cash flows. That is why they are of interest.
A takeover value represents the value of the firm as a target. Analysts study the industry to gauge this. A company with growing sales may be of interest to another firm, even if it is currently unprofitable.
Although analysts will have preferred metrics for intrinsic valuation, the variety of analysis produced suggests that there is no normative demand that a particular one should be used.