Many textbooks claim that the difference between GDP and GNP is about geography vs citizenship. For example, Colander:
GDP is output produced within a country’s borders; GNP is output produced by a country’s citizens.
So, according to the above, if for all of 2017 through 2020, Hans the German citizen lived in the US and worked for Walmart, then his 2020 wages would count towards 2020 US GDP and German GNP (but not US GNP or German GDP).
But from my reading of the UN System of National Accounts (2008), this seems to be incorrect:
An institutional unit is said to be resident within the economic territory of a country when it maintains a centre of predominant economic interest in that territory, that is, when it engages, or intends to engage, in economic activities or transactions on a significant scale either indefinitely or over a long period of time, usually interpreted as one year.
So, by my reading, Hans should be counted as a US resident in 2020 and his 2020 Walmart wages should instead count towards US GDP.
Am I correct and are the textbooks wrong? (Or have I perhaps misinterpreted them?)
More examples of textbooks making the above claim.
There is another concept, called gross national product, which counts the goods and services produced by all Americans, regardless of where they work. For consistency, the outputs produced by foreigners working in the United States are not included in GNP.
Gross national product (GNP) is very similar to GDP but GNP measures what is produced by the labor and property supplied by U.S. permanent residents wherever in the world that labor or capital is located, rather than what is produced within the U.S. border.
There is a distinction between GNP and gross domestic product, or GDP. GDP is the value of final goods produced within the country. What is the difference between GNP and GDP? Part of GNP is earned abroad. For instance, the income of an American citizen working in Japan is part of U.S. GNP. But it is not part of U.S. GDP because it is not earned in the United States.
The distinction between what they produce within their borders, GDP, and what their citizens earn, GNP, is not that important to most countries.