I typed "shareholders of record" into Google, and I got
Stockholder of Record
Also known as shareholder of record, record holder or owner, or registered holder, or owner. The stockholder whose name is listed on the company's books and records as the owner of shares as of a particular date (the record date). A stockholder of record holds stock in a direct relationship with the company and has direct title to the shares, as opposed to a beneficial owner that owns stock indirectly through a broker, dealer, bank or other entity. Beneficial owners holding through a broker, dealer or bank are also said to hold their shares in street name.
A. You have to have a direct relationship with the company.
B. Seems like the one share you can buy through a brokerage won't cut it. If somehow, before the company went public you made an agreement with them to get a share and hold it in your name - I guess?
C. You can if you are a shareholder:
Shareholders [...] are entitled to review only basic documents, such as the charter, bylaws, minutes of board meetings, and the list of shareholders of record.
Source: Page 14 of Velasco: The Fundamental Rights of the