Can models and simulations based on economic data predict when China's economy will overtake that of the United States?
Trivially yes, the source you cite shows a model with one such prediction.
And what effect did the outbreak of coronavirus have on the predicted outcome?
China was growing faster than US before Covid pandemic, those CEBR estimates show it will be growing faster than US despite the pandemic. So other than shifting the date at which China’s GDP catches up with US (due to change in growth rates) not much.
Will China take over US economy?
As long as growth rate of Chinese economy will continue to be larger than growth rate of US economy yes - if one economy grows faster than the other it’s mathematically inevitable. If the situation would change then no. These are forecasts not divinations. There is no guarantee China economy will continue to grow in the future.