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It seems that at least the basic microeconomic theory assumes we are optimizing over quantities that can take continuous magnitudes, but in practice one can often only purchase goods in discrete magnitudes. This is essentially necessary, because optimization over discrete magnitudes is infeasible; computers, let alone humans, cannot even optimise values discretely in an efficient way. When purchasing large numbers of goods this does not seem to lead to much of a problem, since purchasing 700000 units of a good should need shift the utility obtained from purchasing 700000.2 of that good, and so we can round. But if you're buying fewer items of a good (e.g. if you're an individual rather than a business), this rounding can have a notable effect on your utility gain. Can one argue theoretically from this that firms / individuals with a large amount of capital are able to be more efficient than individuals with a smaller amount of capital? Is there a term for this phenomenon, and do papers / results related to this exist in the literature?

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