I am having problems getting my head around this. Some sources say there is a difference between GNI and GNP others just say they are synonyms. Could someone clear this up definitively for me:

Investopedia: https://www.investopedia.com/terms/g/gross-national-income-gni.asp

  1. GDP is the total market value of all finished goods and services produced within a country in a set time period.
  2. GNI is the total income received by the country from its residents and businesses regardless of whether they are located in the country or abroad.
  3. GNP includes the income of all of a country's residents and businesses regardless of whether it flows back to the country or is spent abroad. It also adds subsidies and taxes from foreign sources.

From Investopedia: https://www.investopedia.com/ask/answers/030415/what-functional-difference-between-gdp-and-gnp.asp The 1993 System of National Accounts replaced the term "Gross National Product," or GNP, with the new term "Gross National Income," or GNI. Both represent a country's domestic output plus net income from the businesses or labor of a country's citizens abroad

From the Irish Statistical Office: https://www.cso.ie/en/interactivezone/statisticsexplained/nationalaccountsexplained/grossnationalproductgnpandgrossnationalincomegni/

  1. **Gross National Product (GNP)**is:

    GDP Plus factor income received from abroad Minus factor income paid to abroad.

Gross National Income (GNI) is GNP Plus subsidies received from abroad Minus subsidies paid to abroad.

Having read these I'm not sure if all three can be right!

  • $\begingroup$ Where do you see a problem with these definitions exactly? $\endgroup$
    – BrsG
    Commented Nov 4, 2022 at 11:57
  • $\begingroup$ Errr. Investopedia bullet points two and three. GNI is income RECEIVED from residents at home or abroad. GNP includes income of residents REGARDLESS of whether it flows back. Investopedia (second source) - GNP = GNI. That seems to be internally contradictory to me. The Irish gvt also states they are by definition different. $\endgroup$
    – Studi
    Commented Nov 4, 2022 at 15:43
  • 1
    $\begingroup$ This might help: thebalancemoney.com/gross-national-income-4020738. Note that Ireland is a special case with their modified GNI as measure of economic activity that excludes the impact of certain transactions by resident multinationals on the regular GDP measure. $\endgroup$
    – BrsG
    Commented Nov 4, 2022 at 16:16
  • $\begingroup$ So I conclude that because of Ireland's special case they employ a different version of the GNP. I must admit I had learnt GDP, GNI and GNP were three distinct concepts. GDP Domestic. GNI Domestic plus income remitted GNP Domestic plus any income earnt - remitted or otherwise. $\endgroup$
    – Studi
    Commented Nov 8, 2022 at 10:41


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