Say someone owns 30% of the shares of a company. Then suppose that they increase their number of shares by 50%. This last sentence is ambiguous. It could mean that they increase their number of shares to a total of 45%, or to a total of 80%. It depends whether we 50% is relative to their current shares or to the total possible shares.
Are there words or terms to delineate between the two concepts? This would apply whenever the unit of measurement is a rate, proportion, etc. For example, inflation, interest rates, etc.