I can recommend this paper as an example:
The Colonial Origins of Comparative Development: An Empirical Investigation
Daron Acemoglu, Simon Johnson, and James A. Robinson
This example is famous not only thanks to the creative use of instrumental variables, but also because of the subsequent discussion about the validity of the instruments.
And relevant discussions:
- Bazzi, Samuel, and Michael A. Clemens. “Blunt Instruments: Avoiding Common Pitfalls in Identifying the Causes of Economic Growth.” American Economic Journal: Macroeconomics 5, no. 2 (2013): 152–86.
- Deaton, Angus. “Instruments, Randomization, and Learning about Development.” Journal of Economic Literature 48, no. 2 (2010): 424–55.
Instrumental Variables and the Search for Identification: From Supply and Demand to Natural Experiments
Angrist, Joshua D., and Alan B. Krueger
We discuss the mechanics of instrumental variables and the qualities
that make for a good instrument, devoting particular attention to
instruments derived from "natural experiments."