(edit this bracket out: i'm sorry for being unclear in my question, it was too mild or undirected earlier, i hope the following is better; thanks)
You keep hearing politicians and sometimes the biz press harp on "Currency Manipulation" when it becomes fashionable, and then the story subsides. But what is considered "manipulation" by central banks, also has market effects, no? So that "manipulation" is not really dangerous.
Am i correct that manipulation can be done by outright money printing, which is inflationary, or completely sterilized, which increases borrowing costs. So it seems all "manipulation" is having a market effect anyway (not a free lunch).
Are there other ways of doing manipulation? which of these two modes of manipulation is more popular? which one does the Unites States use, as the host of the Reserve Currency?