Questions tagged [banking]

Use for questions about banks, their operations, and their role in the broader economic and financial system.

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Combined Buffer Requirements Basel III

Let's take this example: A bank is required to maintain minimal capital requirements according to Basel III as follows: CET1 - 4.5% Tier1 - 6% Tier1 + Tier2 - 8% In addition it has to apply these ...
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3answers
88 views

Why do banks need to borrow money (i.e. bond issuance)?

When a bank gives out a loan, a simultaneous liability and asset is created on their balance sheet, and 'external' funding doesn't fit into this picture... so why do they need to borrow money?
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Cash flow of a loan (perspective of a bank)

if you receive a loan from a bank, how does the cash flow of the bank look like? I found the following: https://fincomplete.com/ratgeber/artikel/wie-berechnet-die-bank-meine-kreditzinsen-2 (...
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How do currency boards maintain a 100% foreign reserve backing in the presence of fractional reserve banking?

Under a currency board system, money in circulation has to be 100% backed by foreign reserves. Suppose the domestic currency (A\$) is 100% backed by a foreign currency (B\$), with a fixed 1:1 ratio. ...
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Are there any state-level data on US banking regulation stringency?

In Barth, Caprio, and Levine (2008) Rethinking bank regulation: Till angels govern. Cambridge University Press, authors assemble and showcase large dataset on stringency of banking regulation and ...
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What does the term "non-commercial, patient equity" mean in its entirety?

Source: https://www.undp.org/sites/g/files/zskgke326/files/publications/2018%20DREI%20Off-Grid%20Full%20Report%20Final%20(20190306).pdf (pg. 15) This term is used to describe financing in solar mini-...
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Understanding Adam Smith's assertion about the incentives of receipt holders and bank money holders

At Chapter III of Book IV of The Wealth of Nations, Adam Smith makes the following assertion: Even in ordinary and quiet times, it is in the interest of the holders of receipts to depress the agio, ...
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4answers
286 views

A bank approves a loan: where does the money come from?

In the naïve picture of the banking system, banks strike a balance between savings invested in them by savers and the loans requested of them by borrowers. The money loaned to borrowers is the same ...
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1answer
24 views

Does bank loan support affect companies in negative way?

I'm new to the economics exchange environment. My question may seem amateurish, but I did not find a satisfactory result by doing the necessary literature search. A question that has been on my mind ...
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1answer
190 views

Is The Money Masters (1996) correct in its main thesis?

The Money Masters is a 1996 documentary film that discusses the concepts of money, debt, taxes, and describes their development from biblical times onward. Its main points were summarized by a ...
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284 views

Why are the financial intermediation theory of banking or fractional reserve theory of banking still accepted despite evidence to the contrary?

In most textbook economics I came across the financial intermediation theory of banking and the fractional reserve theory of banking are presented as theories as how money is created. However there is ...
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What are the liabilities of a bank?

Particularly in this context I have come across topics like: 1.Margins held against letters of credit/guarantees. 2..Balances in overdue fixed deposits. 3.Cash certificates and cumulative/recurring ...
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long run growth of money supply

I am trying to understand how the money supply (bank deposits + currency) grows over time. That's the end goal. This is the first part of my awful struggle. I'm superconfused, and almost everything I ...
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1answer
31 views

How is it not arbitrage that EURIBOR (EUR) is around -0.5% and LIBOR (USD) is around 0.5%?

Why can I not borrow $1B of EUR at EURIBOR (pays me 50bps per year), convert it to USD (also pays me 50bps per year), lend it out at LIBOR, and collect a 1% spread? Am I missing somethign obvious? ...
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How to understand: interest income is a moving average of past interest rates

I encounter this question in the paper by DRECHSLER et al. (2021) (Banking on deposit). How to understand that "interest income is close to a moving average of past interest rates, consistent ...
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Unclear reasoning for the specific inclusion of categories of complexity in the GSIB buffer setting

Based on [Basel Comittees Methodology] paper for GSIB buffer setting (https://www.bis.org/publ/bcbs255.pdf), they compute the complexity of a bank based on: (i) notional amount of over-the-counter (...
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4answers
86 views

What happened when the money from share issuance is spent?

Let's assume that new bank is incorporated and it issued 100 000 shares with nominal value odf $100. Let's also assume that all shares are sold for the same price, so bank now has 10 million dollars. ...
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1answer
23 views

is it better a low or high WACC for a company valuation?

I'm doing a statistical report of some italian banks and I'm looking for correlation between Corporate governance practices and bank values. I'm focusing on WACC and I would like to understand if an ...
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1answer
46 views

What happens to an MBS if all the underlying mortgages are fully paid back by the borrowers much before the maturity date?

What would happen to an MBS (mortgage-backed security) if hypothetically speaking all the underlying mortgages were fully paid back by the mortgagees (borrowers), much before the maturity date? I ...
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2answers
77 views

How does paying off debt to the bank work?

So, I understand that banks create money by making loans which end up as deposits. But what I don't get, is how paying off debt works in the big picture. Let me explain. Let's say Jim got a loan of \$...
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3answers
111 views

Are stimulus checks created out of thin air? [closed]

My question is regarding the checks which the US government has sent out during the pandemic. Below is a chart of M2 money supply increase as a result of it: It is also said that 40% of all the m2 ...
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1answer
93 views

Is the equity lending involved in naked short-selling structurally equivalent to fractional-reserve banking?

Fractional-reserve banking consists in banks lending out more money than they actually possess. This can also be seen as "money creation", or at least "money substitute creation"-- ...
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2answers
59 views

Why would investment banks not care about their risky exposure to subprime mortgages?

At the end of The Big Short, Steve Carell's character asserts that the banks weren't acting stupid, and that they knew they were getting a bailout so they just didn't care. Why wouldn't they care? ...
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105 views

Why would a digital Yuan (or some other national currency turned into a CBDC) "help fast-track international settlements" in that currency?

I'm trying to understand the basis of this claim As the main mode of transaction in the world's second biggest economy, China's currency should be a natural contender for the spot. However, the U.S. ...
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1answer
69 views

Why does Dodd-Frank/Basel make large cash piles unattractive?

As several major banks disclosed their financial reports recently, there seems to be much interest in the financial community as to the implications of the large cash piles at US commercial banks. The ...
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Can banks 'create' money on their own or do they need help from other banks?

My current understanding of the banking money multiplication process goes as follows: Alice comes along and deposits 100 cash into Bank A. Bank A gains 100 in vault cash (reserves) as an asset and 100 ...
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1answer
25 views

How to determine the riskparamter PD, EaD, LGD for the IRB-Ansatz | Basel II

A company borrows $100 million from Bank A. According to Basel II, the bank must have a certain amount of equity for this balance sheet item in order to grant the loan. The exact amount of equity can ...
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38 views

Why does Visa pay Chime?

When you buy something, the merchant pays Visa a couple of percent. This is how Visa makes money. This is called the interchange fee. But apparently, Chime gets part of this interchange fee which ...
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Why did Mexico have such a high deposit rate in the 70's despite fixed exchange rate?

Why did Mexico have a high deposit rate in the 70's? Why would a bank want to pay the public such a high interest rate?
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1answer
75 views

What would happen in a modern economy if growth plateaus?

According to a Wikipedia article on a United Nations report, The UN Population Division report of 2019 projects world population to continue growing, although at a steadily decreasing rate, and to ...
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1answer
32 views

why federal fund rate vs treasury bond yield generally move in the same direction?

My own thought is, if the fed lowred federal fund rate, peoole should look for investment with greater return, like treasury bond. More demand=decline in yields but why do they generally move in the ...
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Corporate governance models

I am trying to understand which corporate governance model Millennium BCP, which is a Portuguese bank, uses in its Management model. I read that there are three systems: the monist/one tier, the Anglo-...
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2answers
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How does fed cutting federal fund rate affect student loan

If fed cuts rate, it means it's cutting federal fund rate right? then why do loans like credit card and stuend loan? those aren't like Mortgage rate which the fed cuts its rate by buying MBS
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1answer
86 views

Why Banks give more discounts/offers on Credit Card as compared to Debit Cards?

Whether a credit or debit card is used to make a payment at a merchant, there will be outflow of money from the bank. What extra benefit do the bank get from promoting credit more than debit card? Is ...
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1answer
60 views

Why is Keynes attacking the (neo)classical theory of interest rates on the grounds that it is indeterminate?

I do understand that he argues that in order to draw the loanable funds supply curve, you have to already know the volume of income, i.e. production, and therefore the interest rate in advance. But ...
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loanable funds theory: why is the supply of loanable funds equal to saving (+ dishoarding + new money)?

It seems that the loanable funds theory suggests that all that is saved is supplied in the market for loanable funds. This makes sense when we are talking about 'household saving' (i.e. household ...
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2answers
49 views

Will banks in the US continue to offer CDs?

Earlier this year, the Fed abolished the reserve requirement. My understanding was that the motivation for banks offering CDs was because the Fed didn't impose reserve requirements on CDs, so banks ...
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1answer
39 views

Model with money creation

is there any macro model/paper introducing money creation (ex nihilo money creation) ? I would be very interested in reading them.
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Bank Reserve ratio

It's known that the money multiplier is 7 and the ratio of cash held by the public to their deposits is 1 to 20. Which of the following must be the bank's reserve ratio? My attempt, Money multiplier=1/...
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2answers
69 views

What happens with corporate deposits when a bank goes bankrupt?

When a bank goes bankrupt the money of the private individuals who saved in that bank are lost but a part of the money are guaranteed by the government. But say for example Apple has 10 billion ...
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3answers
135 views

Why would a CBDC (Central Bank Digital Currency) be good for the economy?

I've read about CBDC, how it could be a cryptocurrency like digital payment system, that could replace fiat currencies. But what I don't get is what value would it give to the economy? Someone who ...
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2answers
152 views

How do low interest rates negatively impact bank earnings?

A lot of Banks are focused on bread and butter lending to small businesses and consumers. Many of those are putting aside provisions for loan losses in the wake of the Covid-19 pandemic. Headlines ...
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12answers
9k views

Why do banks take deposits if they do not need them to make loans?

I have taken some economics courses in university, where I was introduced to fractional-reserve banking. From my understanding, in fractional-reserve banking, the bank has motivation to encourage ...
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1answer
106 views

Can the money multiplier happen within a single bank / a single loan?

Many tutorials explain the money multiplier effect by involving a chain of banks (e.g. khan academy) So if reserve requirements are 10% and bank A owns 1000€ reserves, bank A can lend 900€ to bank B; ...
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1answer
44 views

Must a EU bank pay 500€ to the ECB, if I deposit 100k€ into that bank?

Given that the current ECB reserve rates are negative (-0.5%), I suspect that if I deposit 100k€ into a EU commercial bank, that bank must in turn deposit my money at the ECB and pay 500€/year to ECB (...
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28 views

Resources to learn about banking and financial services industry [closed]

Can you recommend resources to learn about how the banks and modern financial system work?
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63 views

Why is the ECB asking EU banks to hold off on buybacks?

In the wake of the Covid-19 pandemic, the ECB requested EU banks not to pay dividends as well as refraining from buying back their own shares until the end of 2020. And that even if they had already ...
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58 views

Why do all/majority of loan contracts charge nominal interest rate instead of fixed real interest rate?

As far as I understand, all/majority of loan contracts charge nominal interest rate, there are (almost?) no loan contracts that charge fixed real interest rate. Why is it so? Normally I would expect ...
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How do personal finance banking apps make money?

There are a bunch of apps and start ups, like Qapital and Varo that helps you save money. Some of them has monthly fees, but not all of them. How else could a company like that make any profit, if ...
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What is the difference between a bank's Treasury department and ALCO?

I know that the treasury manages and controls the bank's capital. While the Asset-Liability Committee deals with the assets and liabilities in order to stay solvent, right? What are the similarities ...

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