Questions tagged [central-banking]

In reference to activities undertaken by the central bank mainly to influence nominal interest rates, money supply and, eventually, price levels.

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Do central banks pay their staff and other costs with money that they create?

Central banks like the Bank of England and the Fed must cover their costs. I was wondering how they do this? I can think of two possible mechanisms: Government allocates money from its tax revenue to ...
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Can quantative easing be summarized as “The state prints cash to pay its debt to private sector”?

I find that most sources describe quantitative easing in an overly complicated way that obscures what it basically means. As far as I understand a central bank is a public entity owned by a state, ...
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Did the robbers from Money Heist real steal noone's money?

Money Heist (original Spanish title: La Casa de papel) is a Spanish TV show about a bank heist. From Wikipedia (bolding mine), In Money Heist, a mysterious man, known as "The Professor", is ...
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How does reverse repo rate affect money supply?

What is the impact of increase/ decrease of reverse repo rate on Monetary Base, Money multiplier and therefore, overall money supply?
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Does a rate hike by the Central Bank increase or decrease inflation?

Mainstream economic theory tells us that, in order to decrease inflation, the CB increases its rates so as to decrease loan creation which should decrease Aggregate Demand and thus lower inflation. ...
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Do (any) governments or central banks have an explicit or econometrically probable policy to “prop up” stock market prices?

This assumption (that governments [in the a broad sense of the term] prop up stock prices deliberately) has been taken as a given/assumption in another question here. Is there evidence that they ...
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Is there a clear timeline of ECB/Eurosystem's changes to the defintion of M3 (with regard to repos)?

I found that circa 2012 the ECB/Eurosystem changed their definition of M3 to exclude at least some repos, which previously were included. According to a 2014 Bundesbank publication, the change ...
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45 views

Why is there a big change in the money supply at the beginning of each month?

I was watching Argentina's daily change in monetary base for a selected period and there is a clear spike at the beginning on each month. Then during the month it slowly goes down until reaching ...
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Can the central bank interest rate policy still control inflation?

Historically, central banks have been using interest rate policy to control inflation. In current times, most rates have been going ever lower, but it seems to be incapable of driving inflation up. ...
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1answer
21 views

What measure of unemployment is used by central banks to find out whether the rate of unemployment is below the natural rate of unemployment?

Having an unemployment rate below the natural rate of unemployment (NRU) leads to wage inflation and a reduction in productivity. Seeing the consequences of that, and knowing that one of the roles of ...
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28 views

In credit easing, how do central banks avoid allegations of unequal treatment?

In credit easing, central banks purchase private assets such as corporate bonds. How do central banks choose which corporate bonds to buy? If the central bank buys bonds of one company but not those ...
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China benchmark rates and Shibor relationship (chart)

I made the chart below for an assignment on People's Bank of China monetary policy during the financial crisis. The problem is that it got me very confused about the relationship between these ...
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How to calculate bond price and the relationship between bond price and repo rate?

Suppose that there is a gilt Tr 7.5pc '06 in 2006 with interest yield 7,32% and redemption yield 4.31%. How can I compute the price of this gilt per 100 face value. The problem is that the numbers I ...
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1answer
56 views

How does an increase in the minimum reserve requirement affect the monetary base?

Monetary base is defined as currency+currency held by banks+deposits of banks at central bank. We assume that the current reserve is below the minimum reserve requirement. Which component of monetary ...
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30 views

The centralized shift from barter to currency economy

Suppose some ancient king of small bronze age city-state wants to introduce universal currency instead of barter that is currently in overwhelming practice in his kingdom. In order to smooth the shift,...
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1answer
41 views

Initial creation of reserves

I am currently reading the book "Where does money come from?" which is co-authored by Richard Werner after I took the "Money and Banking"-class in coursera by Perry Mehrling. There are certain ...
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28 views

What does the Bank of England do with the interest it receives?

Seeing as the Bank of England is free to create money, is the interest it receives meaningful? What does the bank do with it?
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How is seigniorage redistributed in the Eurozone?

An ECB page notes that: As euro banknotes travel freely across borders, at any one time the number of banknotes in circulation registered at each national central bank can vary enormously. The ...
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What does it mean when a discount lender “rediscount[s] reserves”?

I was reading a wikipedia article about the evolution of global financial system: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Global_financial_system#Interwar_period:_1915%E2%80%931944. In the passage about the ...
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32 views

How does changing the Bank of England base rate work?

If we assume the demand for money (D above) is fixed in this position (for the purposes of this question), and supply (S) is fixed in this position, then how can the BoE change market interest rates (...
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79 views

Why does not the Bank of England set the Libor?

In a report by the BBC, it emerged that the Bank of England suggested some banks to lower the Libor, around 2008. The Libor is normally set by commercial banks, and it is directly affecting mortgages ...
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72 views

How is the banknote denomination designed?

Recently India demonetized their 500 and 1000 rupee notes. As a replacement a new 2000 rupee note was introduced. This has resulted in some chaos in the commercial markets due to decreased ...
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27 views

Positive examples of central bank interest rates adjustments policies

I'm looking for sources, maybe scientific articles, that study the effectiveness of central bank interest rate adjustments. Specifically, I'm looking for some kind of a proof by example, where a ...
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49 views

Do you have a list of books about the evolution of the banking sector?

I'm looking for interesting books to read about the banking sector. Topics: Changes in the banking sector, Adaptation of financial services in the digital age, European and US banking regulations ...
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Is the ECB a lender of last resort for european governments?

One of the usual functions of a Central Bank is to be the last resort of commercial banks, and governments. Does the ECB behave in this usual way toward European Governments? What about toward banks?...
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42 views

ECB bond buying from national banks, what are the national banks expected to do?

The European Central Bank announced plans to buy government bonds from national banks. Quantitative Easing, 60 billion euros a month. Although ultimately I am trying to make a decision on what this ...
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53 views

How does the U.S. Fed printing money result in a debt for future generations?

I'm unclear when I see news articles about how the U.S. Treasury will borrow $2 Trillion in the second half of 2020, why would the Fed printing money result in a debt for future generations? I can ...
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1answer
43 views

Why is the ECB asking EU banks to hold off on buybacks?

In the wake of the Covid-19 pandemic, the ECB requested EU banks not to pay dividends as well as refraining from buying back their own shares until the end of 2020. And that even if they had already ...
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7 views

How collateral easing measures complement PELTROs or TLTROs?

ECB introduced Collateral easing measures on 8th April to complement its already existing refinancing operations. Do banks have to keep some collateral with ECB while borrowing? This is when they are ...
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Applying Econometrics to Monetary Economics

I've been given a problem in which I am told that GDP is a function of the supply of money, prices and demand, $$Y = (M/P)^\delta$$ Taking logs, $$\log(Y) = \alpha + \beta \log(m - p) +u$$ ...
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What is the difference between the discount window and Fed repos?

I'm wondering how the Fed's discount window differs from it's involvement in the repo market. To the best of my knowledge, both are tools used to conduct monetary policy and both are also short-term, ...
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8 views

Why did the central bank of China raised the amount of repos during the financial crisis?

According to the PBOC monetary reports, the total amount of repos conducted went from 1.27 trillion yuan in 2007 to 3.3 in 2008 and further increased to 4 trillion in 2009. It wasn't until 2012 that ...
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28 views

Relevance of central bank

Why do we need central bank ? surely the government can print currency and regulate banks by conducting audits through finance ministry and so on. Why do we need central bank ?
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What are the indices used to determine the quantity of Euro permitted to be printed by an individual National Central Bank of the Eurosystem?

I learnt that the European Central Bank manages the printing of currencies in by delegating the printing to each participating members of the Eurosystem. What are the indices used to determine the ...
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bank lending channel and bank capital channel: mechanism step by step

In any definition of these concepts, I miss the first step: how exactly does expansionary or contractionary (rate changes, req. reserve changes, ... ) monetary policy affect bank deposits and bank ...
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30 views

How does a government implement negative interest rates in practical terms?

We usually understand interest rates from a very simple story "you went to a bank ans asked to borrow money, the bank agrees but requires you to return an extra amount be the end of the loan term, ...
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54 views

Does only enough money exist to pay the principal on all debts, and none for the interest or for anything else?

This is reported to be the testimony of Marriner Eccles, Governor of the Federal Reserve Board, before the House Committee on Banking and Currency, on September 30, 1941. Does this mean that only ...
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1answer
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Why would a CBDC (Central Bank Digital Currency) be good for the economy?

I've read about CBDC, how it could be a cryptocurrency like digital payment system, that could replace fiat currencies. But what I don't get is what value would it give to the economy? Someone who ...
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1answer
57 views

How does the Fed's stimulus push stocks markets higher?

I read that the Fed’s stimulus last March has contributed to a spectacular rally in stock markets. And indeed S&P500 has increased a lot since March. But how does the mechanism work? How does the ...
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What is the list of countries where the central bank prints money?

Is there a list of the countries where the central bank is creating money, today ? How much ? We know for: EUR: Euro countries (since ECB QEs) (and euro-bound countries as DKK ?) YEN: Japan (BOJ '...
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Why don't we mint more m0 instead of creating m1 through fractional reserve banking?

From what I understand, m1 money is just as liquid as m0 since an individual can withdraw it from the bank at any time and in any quantity (up to the amount (s)he deposited). Because of this I don't ...