Questions tagged [central-banking]

In reference to activities undertaken by the central bank mainly to influence nominal interest rates, money supply and, eventually, price levels.

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Fed must hold collateral equal in value to notes in circulation

The Fed's website has a FAQ "Is U.S. currency still backed by gold?". Part of the answer writes: The Congress has specified that Federal Reserve Banks must hold collateral equal in value to the ...
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Nominal vs real growth of monetary base

Can someone clarify the difference between nominal and real growth of monetary base? I believe it is the policy of some central banks to target for example 0% nominal growth in the monetary base. What ...
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Central bank loss function

$$ L_t = \gamma(\pi_t - \pi_t^\otimes)^2 + \hat{Y}_t^2 $$ Central banks loss function is given by the equation above. This loss is increasing and convex in the distance from the inflation target, i.e....
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What does it mean when a discount lender “rediscount[s] reserves”?

I was reading a wikipedia article about the evolution of global financial system: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Global_financial_system#Interwar_period:_1915%E2%80%931944. In the passage about the ...
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Does the Federal Reserve have bank accounts for banks?

Banks are constantly transferring electronic dollars to each other. There must be an entity that tracks how many digital dollars each bank has. Does the Federal Reserve have "accounts" for banks? In ...
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Why would a rise in the discount rate stop foreign gold drain and make banks fail?

I am reading "Capitalism and Freedom" by Milton Friedman. In Chapter 3, "The control of Money", Dr. Friedman explains how the Fed exacerbated the Great Depression of the 1930s. In particular: In ...
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Would capitalism without banks work?

According to Merriam-Webster's dictionary, capitalism is "an economic system characterized by private or corporate ownership of capital goods, by investments that are determined by private decision, ...
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Why doesn't the central bank extend loans directly?

I've been thinking about the credit theory of money lately and how it creates money. Since Banks look for sufficient reserves after extending a loan, and since the central bank always loans out money ...
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Why don't we mint more m0 instead of creating m1 through fractional reserve banking?

From what I understand, m1 money is just as liquid as m0 since an individual can withdraw it from the bank at any time and in any quantity (up to the amount (s)he deposited). Because of this I don't ...
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Understanding interest rates

When a central bank 'pays' interest rate X / year, what does it mean exactly? Is that pure money printing? Where does that money (interest rate) come from? does it increase the debt of the country? A ...
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The independence of Central Banks [closed]

How do such digital currencies such as Bitcoin affect the independence of Central Banks? Thank you
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Where the money from QE goes

So when QE is used (or something similar that results in printing mone), where does the newly created money go? Does some entity get free money? Why is that allowed?
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What does a central bank guarantee against its currency?

During the Bretton Woods system, currencies were issued against gold. In contemporary times, what is the real thing against which currency is issued? What does the fiat currency actually guarantee?
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Why do central banks print money? [duplicate]

If a country's central bank prints money, it causes inflation. However, apparently, small amounts of inflation is a good thing. Why is the case? What would happen if central banks stopped printing ...
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Hyman Minsky's view on Bank Examination

In Stabilizing an Unstable Economy (1986), Hyman Minsky argues that "bank examination is largely perfunctory... rather than an inquiry into the economic viability and the exposures to risk of banking ...
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Why does a stronger currency have a tightening effect on economic conditions?

http://www.economist.com/blogs/buttonwood/2015/12/central-bank-predictability Ever since 1987, banks have been willing to cut rates when markets have wobbled. Driving down bond yields has been an ...
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How does changing the Bank of England base rate work?

If we assume the demand for money (D above) is fixed in this position (for the purposes of this question), and supply (S) is fixed in this position, then how can the BoE change market interest rates (...
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Why are required reserves so trivially low?

We know that required reserves are the reserves that central bank requires banks to hold in reserves. Reserves= Required Reserves +Excess reserves. But I see that in 2017 Total Reserves (RESBALNS) = ...
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How does reverse repo rate affect money supply?

What is the impact of increase/ decrease of reverse repo rate on Monetary Base, Money multiplier and therefore, overall money supply?
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Is it possible to have a modern economy without a central bank?

Many mainstream economists say that such thing is impossible. Is there some specific reason why the financial system needs a central bank? In this video http://m.youtube.com/watch?v=BcuAOdXD0Go, ...
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Is there merit to the argument of reducing the US trade deficit

Is the merit to the argument of reducing the US trade deficit and the inequitable tariff regime imposed by its trading partners that works unfavorably towards the US. Does this give merit to the ...
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How does national debt work?

I'm trying to understand national debt. I gather that the United States, and other nations with central banks, accrue debt basically by printing new money at their central bank. This, I hypothesize, ...
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Open market purchase of securities and it's effect on balancesheet

An open market purchase of securities lead to increase in bank reserves ( Liability side) and increase in assets(asset side) of central bank balance sheet. My doubt is why it leads to increase in ...
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How would the risk premium and a simplified taylor rule change the MP curve?

Ok so we're given a monetary policy rule where $$R^{CB}_t-\bar r = \bar n \tilde Y \space where \space \bar n>0 $$ and $$R_t = R^{CB}_t+\bar p $$ Where $\bar p $ is risk premium $\bar n$ is ...
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Is it possbile central banks are outside of books getting money from deflation? [duplicate]

Is it possile that central banks are secretly stealing from the economy by printing money when the the dollar deflates, so the dollar stay the same value and nobody notice it? What if the dollar ...
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360 views

Do banks make profits by selling bonds to the central bank?

I am a bit puzzled by the quote below, from here (emphasis mine): Modern monetary theorists have helped clarify the obvious point that private banks are not essential to the design of the system. ...
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When the ECB does QE, does it print new money?

I knew that when the Fed in the US buys bonds through Quantitative Easing, it does so using money it has from previous profits and that it doesn't print new money. However, I was reading this article ...
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How can the HKMA peg the Hong Kong dollar at 7.8 HKD/USD for so long?

A lot of pegged exchange rate systems don't stay pegged for so long (e.g. because the central bank run out of reserves to maintain their values) So far I understand that the HKD is 100% backed by the ...
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Who was the first economist to write about central banking?

I am interested in the origin of a central banking theory. I've heard that Karl Marx was the first author who wrote about central banking system. Was he really the first one? Or was there any other ...
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Is an increase in the money supply (by buying government bonds) recorded in bank deposits or bank reserves?

When the central bank pays 100 shekels for a bond held by the public, it is assumed that the 100 shekels are deposited. In this case, shouldn't it cause a 100 shekels increase in the bank deposit ...
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How does the Fed get money [duplicate]

As far as I'm aware, the Federal Reserve has 4.5$ Billion on its balance sheet. Where did it get the money for buying all those assets? I understand that it makes money out of interest on the bonds ...
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Can banks maintain Euro accounts if the country they're in leaves the eurozone?

If a country forcibly leaves the Eurozone, is it possible for banks within this country to maintain existing euro deposits? Or does leaving the eurozone mean those deposits are automatically ...
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Central Banks, Large Scale Asset Purchases and Inflation

First, the overview: With the fractional reserve system, money/credit is primarily created through loans on deposits but the bank is required to maintain their deposits up to a certain amount (...
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Forward Guidance - What happens when the FED unloads its balance sheet

Please Excuse my ignorance. The US Federal Reserve has issued forward guidance telling the world that it is going to start to sell its (well a little less) 4.5 trillion dollars worth of securities ...
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Wealth effect from OMO

In a paper by Eric Leeper he says: For example, a contractionary open-market sale of government bonds raises nominal interest rates, including yields on government bonds. If the higher debt ...
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What stops a government in partnership with its central bank from lowering interest rates and then borrowing at this lower rate to fund investments?

For example, in the UK, after the Brexit vote, the Bank of England decided to lower reserve interest rates to 0.25%. This, as I understand it, has the knock on effect of lowering the interest rates of ...
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Purchase of the public debts by the ECB

In France, one of the presidential candidate said that the European Central Bank should purchase the public debts of the country and transform it into a perpetual debt (this is a literal translation, ...
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How do central banks create money to pay interest on reserves

Referring to this answer (https://economics.stackexchange.com/a/15321/12013) for the technical process of money creation. How do central banks create the money to pay interest on its reserves (...
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Why does not the Bank of England set the Libor?

In a report by the BBC, it emerged that the Bank of England suggested some banks to lower the Libor, around 2008. The Libor is normally set by commercial banks, and it is directly affecting mortgages ...
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How does the taylor rule make the MP curve upward sloping?

I know it's because $\bar n \tilde Y$ is added in but isn't the MP curve chosen by the government?
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How monetary policy affects bank reserves

In discussions of the "credit channel" in the transmission of monetary policy, I've read that increasing the policy rate reduces bank reserves. Can someone explain how this happens?
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What physically happens when foreign currency reserves change?

Assume that the United States decided to hold more yuan in the federal reserve. Which processes does that involve? I assume there is some sort of electronic exchange between the two central banks ...
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Does a strong dollar achieve the same tightening effect on the economy as rising interest rates?

Rising interest rates means the cost of borrowing USD goes up. A stronger USD means USD becomes more expensive. Wouldn't that naturally follows that the cost of borrowing USD goes up since each dollar ...
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Are there countries with free banking?

Are there any countries in which banks do not need to follow any special regulation other than the regular business regulations. If not, are there any countries that come close? For more information ...
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Could a hike in interest rates cause a country to be unable to pay back it's debt burden?

Sometimes I read in news articles, that a central bank can't hike the interest rates much higher, because then the government would be unable to pay the interest rate burden of it's government debt. ...
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How do central banks regulate the money supply to avoid inflation?

It is a tricky problem. Historically, poor control money supply led to inflation. Out of control money supply led to hyperinflation. Central banks seem to do a wonderful job in recent years with ...
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Why would a central bank buy government bonds?

E.g. the Bank of Japan buying Japanese government bonds.
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British inflation up again, but crisis might come. What should the BoE do?

According to the latest ONS report, inflation is rising as a consequence of the (pre/post) Brexit devaluation. This graph about the Input PPI is pretty revealing (taken from here): Yet, with the risk ...
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How is the banknote denomination designed?

Recently India demonetized their 500 and 1000 rupee notes. As a replacement a new 2000 rupee note was introduced. This has resulted in some chaos in the commercial markets due to decreased ...
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How is the interest on fractional reserve money creation paid?

In fractional reserve banking commercial banks create money when they make loans. When these loans are paid back the account is zeroed, the created money disappears, but the bank is still entitled ...