Questions tagged [central-banking]

In reference to activities undertaken by the central bank mainly to influence nominal interest rates, money supply and, eventually, price levels.

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Purchase of the public debts by the ECB

In France, one of the presidential candidate said that the European Central Bank should purchase the public debts of the country and transform it into a perpetual debt (this is a literal translation, ...
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Why does not the Bank of England set the Libor?

In a report by the BBC, it emerged that the Bank of England suggested some banks to lower the Libor, around 2008. The Libor is normally set by commercial banks, and it is directly affecting mortgages ...
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How does reverse repo rate affect money supply?

What is the impact of increase/ decrease of reverse repo rate on Monetary Base, Money multiplier and therefore, overall money supply?
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Central Banks, Large Scale Asset Purchases and Inflation

First, the overview: With the fractional reserve system, money/credit is primarily created through loans on deposits but the bank is required to maintain their deposits up to a certain amount (...
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104 views

How do central banks create money to pay interest on reserves

Referring to this answer (https://economics.stackexchange.com/a/15321/12013) for the technical process of money creation. How do central banks create the money to pay interest on its reserves (...
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62 views

What physically happens when foreign currency reserves change?

Assume that the United States decided to hold more yuan in the federal reserve. Which processes does that involve? I assume there is some sort of electronic exchange between the two central banks ...
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Are there countries with free banking?

Are there any countries in which banks do not need to follow any special regulation other than the regular business regulations. If not, are there any countries that come close? For more information ...
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Does a strong dollar achieve the same tightening effect on the economy as rising interest rates?

Rising interest rates means the cost of borrowing USD goes up. A stronger USD means USD becomes more expensive. Wouldn't that naturally follows that the cost of borrowing USD goes up since each dollar ...
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705 views

How do central banks regulate the money supply to avoid inflation?

It is a tricky problem. Historically, poor control money supply led to inflation. Out of control money supply led to hyperinflation. Central banks seem to do a wonderful job in recent years with ...
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Could a hike in interest rates cause a country to be unable to pay back it's debt burden?

Sometimes I read in news articles, that a central bank can't hike the interest rates much higher, because then the government would be unable to pay the interest rate burden of it's government debt. ...
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Why would a central bank buy government bonds?

E.g. the Bank of Japan buying Japanese government bonds.
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89 views

Who was the first economist to write about central banking?

I am interested in the origin of a central banking theory. I've heard that Karl Marx was the first author who wrote about central banking system. Was he really the first one? Or was there any other ...
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How is the banknote denomination designed?

Recently India demonetized their 500 and 1000 rupee notes. As a replacement a new 2000 rupee note was introduced. This has resulted in some chaos in the commercial markets due to decreased ...
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Does only enough money exist to pay the principal on all debts, and none for the interest or for anything else?

This is reported to be the testimony of Marriner Eccles, Governor of the Federal Reserve Board, before the House Committee on Banking and Currency, on September 30, 1941. Does this mean that only ...
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263 views

How does the central bank changing interest rates change interest rates in the commerical banking sector?

I understand that the federal reserve manipulates the federal fund rate in order to change interest rates in the wider banking sector. What I am struggling to understand is how the changing the ...
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How does the taylor rule make the MP curve upward sloping?

I know it's because $\bar n \tilde Y$ is added in but isn't the MP curve chosen by the government?
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How would the risk premium and a simplified taylor rule change the MP curve?

Ok so we're given a monetary policy rule where $$R^{CB}_t-\bar r = \bar n \tilde Y \space where \space \bar n>0 $$ and $$R_t = R^{CB}_t+\bar p $$ Where $\bar p $ is risk premium $\bar n$ is ...
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Can the central bank interest rate policy still control inflation?

Historically, central banks have been using interest rate policy to control inflation. In current times, most rates have been going ever lower, but it seems to be incapable of driving inflation up. ...
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How monetary policy affects bank reserves

In discussions of the "credit channel" in the transmission of monetary policy, I've read that increasing the policy rate reduces bank reserves. Can someone explain how this happens?
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Is there any scientific proof that 2%-3% target inflation rate is ideal?

There are a couple of central banks (RBA, Federal reserve for example) that use inflation rate as a key indicator to regulate their official cash rates. Those target inflation rates usually range ...
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Positive examples of central bank interest rates adjustments policies

I'm looking for sources, maybe scientific articles, that study the effectiveness of central bank interest rate adjustments. Specifically, I'm looking for some kind of a proof by example, where a ...
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Can a government or central bank work to reduce inflation without hiking interest rates and causing the currency to appreciate?

Since trying to lower inflation will have some undesirable consequences, such as currency appreciation, which hurts exports, should governments and central banks keep hands off on inflation? But ...
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What stops a government in partnership with its central bank from lowering interest rates and then borrowing at this lower rate to fund investments?

For example, in the UK, after the Brexit vote, the Bank of England decided to lower reserve interest rates to 0.25%. This, as I understand it, has the knock on effect of lowering the interest rates of ...
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British inflation up again, but crisis might come. What should the BoE do?

According to the latest ONS report, inflation is rising as a consequence of the (pre/post) Brexit devaluation. This graph about the Input PPI is pretty revealing (taken from here): Yet, with the risk ...
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Solvency and liquidity. How to understand them? Should Central Banks only lend to solvent but illiquid banks?

Solvency: Long-term liabilities are covered by assets(with value measured at maturity, not at market-to-market) Liquidity: short-term liabilities are covered by assets which can be sold in the short-...
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Do you have a list of books about the evolution of the banking sector?

I'm looking for interesting books to read about the banking sector. Topics: Changes in the banking sector, Adaptation of financial services in the digital age, European and US banking regulations ...
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Why does the European Central Bank use the 5y5y rate to measure inflation

I cannot understand why the 5y5y swap rate measures inflation. I can see how the floating rate somewhat measures the rate of interest rates which are related to inflation. However I cannot understand ...
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How exactly does a central bank determine how much to cut/increase interest rates?

We all know under what circumstances a central bank tries to cut interest rate and when it tries to increase interest rates, but how do those people know exactly by how much it should change? I mean, ...
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Connection between negative interest rates and negative bond yields

In an answer to one of my other questions: Why does falling global bond yields signal coming deflation, the answerer states: Whereas central banks set rates by policy, long term bond yields are ...
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Isn't money moving towards central bank in the long run?

Central banks typically pumps money into the system by : lending out to private banks buying govt bonds But in both these cases won't the central bank get back more money when it ends it's position (...
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If central banks become shareholders, where can investors go?

The ECB is buying corporate bonds. It could eventually also buy shares. What would be left for investors to invest in? Letting bank shareholders pay for bailouts resulted in crashes of their shares. ...
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How government borrowing from central bank increases money supply in economy?

Yes, public finance by government may lead to increase in money supply in economy. But, if govt borrows money from central bank, less amount of money is left with central bank to lend it to banks and ...
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Why does BOJ unchanged rate lead to Nikkei and Topix declines?

Why does the BOJ's decision to leave rates unchanged lead to a stronger yen and declines in the Nikkei and Topix? Thanks in advance!
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What is the list of countries where the central bank prints money?

Is there a list of the countries where the central bank is creating money, today ? How much ? We know for: EUR: Euro countries (since ECB QEs) (and euro-bound countries as DKK ?) YEN: Japan (BOJ '...
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Money supply control vs. interest rate control

In a macroeconomics book I'm reading, the author talks about money supply control vs. interest rate control as two different approaches in monetary policy of a central bank. With the goal of price ...
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The independence of Central Banks [closed]

How do such digital currencies such as Bitcoin affect the independence of Central Banks? Thank you
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Limits to Quantitative Easing Programmes

I have been reading recently on the quantitative easing programmes by the ECB and the BOJ, see http://www.cnbc.com/2016/04/07/what-the-bank-of-japan-boj-will-do-now-that-negative-rates-have-...
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Why did the Fed raise interest rates between 2004 and 2006?

Between June 2004 and August 2006, the Fed raised interest rates again and again, because they were "...growing more uncomfortable about inflation". Looking at the graph below, inflation did increase,...
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Gold and loss of faith in central banking

In this article here, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/investing/gold/gold-resurgence-whos-buying-gold-and-why/ , it states that "gold tends to do....best when markets lose faith in central banking". I ...
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499 views

Why currency purchasing power is linked to confidence in central banks

From the New Statesman, http://www.newstatesman.com/politics/economy/2016/02/coming-storm, "Ever since the collapse of the Bretton Woods system of pegged exchange rates in 1971, the sole guarantee ...
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Why should I get a bond with negative interest instead of having a bank deposit account either zero interest or positive interest

I don't get why central banks apply negative interest rates. They say that buy our bond and at the maturity, it will worth less than today. What is the policy outcome of such decision? Why an investor ...
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Why hasn't Quantative Easing created a surge in inflation, or hyperinflation?

From what I understand, Quantitative Easing (QE) is the buying, by the Central Bank, of bonds and other financial assets with high-powered money (or money created by the CB for this purpose). If I ...
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How to make deliberate devaluation or depreciation of a currency?

It is said in Wikipedia, that devaluation can be done as monetary policy act. But HOW this can be done if there is no fixed rate? What are actual tools Central Bank can use? One thing I can imagine ...
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How much leverage has the Federal Reserve taken on today (Jan 2016)?

http://nymag.com/daily/intelligencer/2015/12/big-short-genius-says-another-crisis-is-coming.html?mid=twitter-share-di What makes you most nervous about the future? Debt. The idea that growth will ...
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Is the ECB a lender of last resort for european governments?

One of the usual functions of a Central Bank is to be the last resort of commercial banks, and governments. Does the ECB behave in this usual way toward European Governments? What about toward banks?...
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Why does a stronger currency have a tightening effect on economic conditions?

http://www.economist.com/blogs/buttonwood/2015/12/central-bank-predictability Ever since 1987, banks have been willing to cut rates when markets have wobbled. Driving down bond yields has been an ...
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What does a central bank guarantee against its currency?

During the Bretton Woods system, currencies were issued against gold. In contemporary times, what is the real thing against which currency is issued? What does the fiat currency actually guarantee?
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Is an increase in the money supply (by buying government bonds) recorded in bank deposits or bank reserves?

When the central bank pays 100 shekels for a bond held by the public, it is assumed that the 100 shekels are deposited. In this case, shouldn't it cause a 100 shekels increase in the bank deposit ...
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What happens to Fed's balance sheet when its asset shrink in value?

What happens to Fed's balance sheet when its asset shrink in value? I noticed that Fed's balance sheet is special because I do not see any O.E. category (correct me if I am wrong). Suppsoe Fed's ...
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Why didn't the money printing by the US Federal Reserve since 2008 lead to inflation?

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/finance/comment/liamhalligan/8484530/Americas-reckless-money-printing-could-put-the-world-back-into-crisis.html America's reckless money-printing could put the world back ...