Questions tagged [central-banking]

In reference to activities undertaken by the central bank mainly to influence nominal interest rates, money supply and, eventually, price levels.

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14 views

How is seigniorage redistributed in the Eurozone?

An ECB page notes that: As euro banknotes travel freely across borders, at any one time the number of banknotes in circulation registered at each national central bank can vary enormously. The ...
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What does it mean when a discount lender “rediscount[s] reserves”?

I was reading a wikipedia article about the evolution of global financial system: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Global_financial_system#Interwar_period:_1915%E2%80%931944. In the passage about the ...
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32 views

How does changing the Bank of England base rate work?

If we assume the demand for money (D above) is fixed in this position (for the purposes of this question), and supply (S) is fixed in this position, then how can the BoE change market interest rates (...
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79 views

Why does not the Bank of England set the Libor?

In a report by the BBC, it emerged that the Bank of England suggested some banks to lower the Libor, around 2008. The Libor is normally set by commercial banks, and it is directly affecting mortgages ...
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How is the banknote denomination designed?

Recently India demonetized their 500 and 1000 rupee notes. As a replacement a new 2000 rupee note was introduced. This has resulted in some chaos in the commercial markets due to decreased ...
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Positive examples of central bank interest rates adjustments policies

I'm looking for sources, maybe scientific articles, that study the effectiveness of central bank interest rate adjustments. Specifically, I'm looking for some kind of a proof by example, where a ...
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49 views

Do you have a list of books about the evolution of the banking sector?

I'm looking for interesting books to read about the banking sector. Topics: Changes in the banking sector, Adaptation of financial services in the digital age, European and US banking regulations ...
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58 views

Is the ECB a lender of last resort for european governments?

One of the usual functions of a Central Bank is to be the last resort of commercial banks, and governments. Does the ECB behave in this usual way toward European Governments? What about toward banks?...
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277 views

What happens to Fed's balance sheet when its asset shrink in value?

What happens to Fed's balance sheet when its asset shrink in value? I noticed that Fed's balance sheet is special because I do not see any O.E. category (correct me if I am wrong). Suppsoe Fed's ...
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44 views

What would happen if central banks were no longer able to provide loans [closed]

Actually I'm asking because of two reasons. I'm still not clear how everything works. First money is supposedly a debt, and it is created by creating loans? Second central banks seem to want ...
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42 views

ECB bond buying from national banks, what are the national banks expected to do?

The European Central Bank announced plans to buy government bonds from national banks. Quantitative Easing, 60 billion euros a month. Although ultimately I am trying to make a decision on what this ...
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1answer
42 views

World GDP increase

How does the world GDP increase? The world GDP tends to increase on average every year (exception being years of global recession). If in year x the world GDP was 100 million dollars, how can the ...
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1answer
67 views

How does national debt work?

I'm trying to understand national debt. I gather that the United States, and other nations with central banks, accrue debt basically by printing new money at their central bank. This, I hypothesize, ...
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Why would a central bank buy government bonds?

E.g. the Bank of Japan buying Japanese government bonds.
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Why is it that when a bank provides loans to people, it is considered a 'liability' on the bank's balance sheet? (Khan Academy Video-Related)

I am watching the Khan Academy Banking Video Series: (https://youtu.be/On3c86V5A_E) . (https://www.khanacademy.org/economics-finance-domain/core-finance/money-and-banking/money-and-banking/banking-and-...
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270 views

Are there countries with free banking?

Are there any countries in which banks do not need to follow any special regulation other than the regular business regulations. If not, are there any countries that come close? For more information ...
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Must a EU bank pay 500€ to the ECB, if I deposit 100k€ into that bank?

Given that the current ECB reserve rates are negative (-0.5%), I suspect that if I deposit 100k€ into a EU commercial bank, that bank must in turn deposit my money at the ECB and pay 500€/year to ECB (...
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Are FedWire transfers and volume tracking exchanges of reserves between banks that have accounts at the Federal Reserve?

Looking at Fedwire® Funds Service - Monthly Statistics it appears that these transactions are between banks but I'm trying to confirm is whether the stuff they are exchanging is classified as reserves....
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29 views

How yield rates influence the “cost of borrowing” for borrowers

I am currently learning about quantitative easing, and I am having trouble understanding yield rates and how that influences the "cost of borrowing". This is the resource I am using. The lecturer ...
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1answer
36 views

Ambiguity on a relation between inflation, interest rates, and central banks

When working on inflation, central banks, interest rates etc., I summarized the info in various sources as follows: When there is not enough money in the economy system, the money in circulation ...
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23 views

Bank of Canada operating band

I read the following quote about the Bank of Canada's "operating band" for inducing target overnight loan rates: ...
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32 views

Why do banks keep vault cash instead of depositing all reserves at the central bank?

In what way to commercial banks benefit from keeping some of their excess reserves in the vault as opposed to depositing all of their excess reserves with the central bank (assuming the central bank ...
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2answers
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What does it mean to “kickstart the economy”?

This answer claims that: the central banks have been lowering and lowering [interest] rates, desperate to kickstart the economy, but it's not been working What does "kickstart the economy" mean ...
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Decreasing interest rate effect on economy

Central banks decrease sometimes the interest rate by saying this has positive effect on the economy and the development of countries. One of the reasons is that it can be easier to do investments (...
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35 views

Capital flight and interest rates

I am currently reviewing some stuff on capital flight and self-fulfilling crises. In this scenario, investors generally think that a low availability of reserves could imply that the central bank ...
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1answer
110 views

How do central banks create money to pay interest on reserves

Referring to this answer (https://economics.stackexchange.com/a/15321/12013) for the technical process of money creation. How do central banks create the money to pay interest on its reserves (...
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948 views

How does the taylor rule make the MP curve upward sloping?

I know it's because $\bar n \tilde Y$ is added in but isn't the MP curve chosen by the government?
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What is the difference between a bank's Treasury department and ALCO?

I know that the treasury manages and controls the bank's capital. While the Asset-Liability Committee deals with the assets and liabilities in order to stay solvent, right? What are the similarities ...
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Would saving money outside of banking system be able to reduce monetary base?

First of all, here is definition of monetary base taken from Investopedia A monetary base is the total amount of a currency that is either in general circulation in the hands of the public or in ...
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Central banking in Saudi Arabia

People say that central bank with autonomy is needed to avoid political business cycle but then how do we explain the existence of central bank in arab oil exporting countries like saudi arabia where ...
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What justifies the authority of a bank to create money when they make loans?

This is somewhat of a political or philosophical question. As explained by the Bank of England and elsewhere, the majority of broad money is created by credit to banks' accounts when they make loans. ...
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154 views

Question on Central bank loss function interpretation

How do you interpret this central bank’s loss function: $$L(\hat x, \pi)=\alpha \hat{x}^2+(\pi-\pi^T)^2$$ where $\alpha >0$ and $\hat x$ is output gap. Phillips curve is $\pi = \theta \hat{x}+\...
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145 views

Central bank loss function (I did a solution, but it doesn’t totally make sense I guess)

I have question on central bank loss function. We know that the central bank loss function is $$L(\pi, \bar{Y})= (\pi- \pi^e)^2+\beta \bar {Y}^2$$ And we know that fisher equation is $$i=r+\pi^e$$...
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Nominal vs real growth of monetary base

Can someone clarify the difference between nominal and real growth of monetary base? I believe it is the policy of some central banks to target for example 0% nominal growth in the monetary base. What ...
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How do central banks earn profit?

I thought of Central banks as the regulators of financial markets. But surplus reserves of some Central banks surpass giant corporate companies. Please explain me how do they manage to make profit in ...
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113 views

Why would a rise in the discount rate stop foreign gold drain and make banks fail?

I am reading "Capitalism and Freedom" by Milton Friedman. In Chapter 3, "The control of Money", Dr. Friedman explains how the Fed exacerbated the Great Depression of the 1930s. In particular: In ...
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468 views

Why do central banks print money? [duplicate]

If a country's central bank prints money, it causes inflation. However, apparently, small amounts of inflation is a good thing. Why is the case? What would happen if central banks stopped printing ...
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1answer
171 views

Open market purchase of securities and it's effect on balancesheet

An open market purchase of securities lead to increase in bank reserves ( Liability side) and increase in assets(asset side) of central bank balance sheet. My doubt is why it leads to increase in ...
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381 views

Isn't the liquidity trap about real interest rates?

Here is a so-called thought experiment. Suppose the inflation rate is negative, the nominal interest rate slightly negative, and the real interest rate positive (call it $r$). I think people would ...
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600 views

Solvency and liquidity. How to understand them? Should Central Banks only lend to solvent but illiquid banks?

Solvency: Long-term liabilities are covered by assets(with value measured at maturity, not at market-to-market) Liquidity: short-term liabilities are covered by assets which can be sold in the short-...
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If central banks become shareholders, where can investors go?

The ECB is buying corporate bonds. It could eventually also buy shares. What would be left for investors to invest in? Letting bank shareholders pay for bailouts resulted in crashes of their shares. ...
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51 views

How to make deliberate devaluation or depreciation of a currency?

It is said in Wikipedia, that devaluation can be done as monetary policy act. But HOW this can be done if there is no fixed rate? What are actual tools Central Bank can use? One thing I can imagine ...
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How does the U.S. Fed printing money result in a debt for future generations?

I'm unclear when I see news articles about how the U.S. Treasury will borrow $2 Trillion in the second half of 2020, why would the Fed printing money result in a debt for future generations? I can ...
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43 views

Why is the ECB asking EU banks to hold off on buybacks?

In the wake of the Covid-19 pandemic, the ECB requested EU banks not to pay dividends as well as refraining from buying back their own shares until the end of 2020. And that even if they had already ...
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Federal Reserve OMO money goes to the Treasury? [duplicate]

If Federal Reserve performs open market operation by selling government securities then Fed gets money, who keeps that money? Does it go to Federal Reserve Deposit or the department of Treasury or ...
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How collateral easing measures complement PELTROs or TLTROs?

ECB introduced Collateral easing measures on 8th April to complement its already existing refinancing operations. Do banks have to keep some collateral with ECB while borrowing? This is when they are ...
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Applying Econometrics to Monetary Economics

I've been given a problem in which I am told that GDP is a function of the supply of money, prices and demand, $$Y = (M/P)^\delta$$ Taking logs, $$\log(Y) = \alpha + \beta \log(m - p) +u$$ ...
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46 views

What is the difference between the discount window and Fed repos?

I'm wondering how the Fed's discount window differs from it's involvement in the repo market. To the best of my knowledge, both are tools used to conduct monetary policy and both are also short-term, ...
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Why did the central bank of China raised the amount of repos during the financial crisis?

According to the PBOC monetary reports, the total amount of repos conducted went from 1.27 trillion yuan in 2007 to 3.3 in 2008 and further increased to 4 trillion in 2009. It wasn't until 2012 that ...
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Relevance of central bank

Why do we need central bank ? surely the government can print currency and regulate banks by conducting audits through finance ministry and so on. Why do we need central bank ?