Questions tagged [consumer-theory]

the study of consumer choice and its fundamental underpinnings in preferences and constraints.

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1answer
30 views

Asymmetric (in sign) cross-price derivatives in consumer-theory problem

I'm puzzled why, in the following optimal-choice problem, good $x$ depends on price $p_y$ but the opposite is not true. Should not the sign of $\frac{\partial x}{\partial p_y}$ be the same of $\frac{\...
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2answers
36 views

The mathematical proof of a monotonic utility transformation does not restrict the use of strictly decreasing monotonic functions. Why bar them?

I understand from an intuitive sense that decreasing monotonic transformations will skew the choices and ordinality. But mathematically the $F'(U(x,y))$ just cancels out each other out in numerator ...
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4answers
4k views

Can someone explain graphically why MRS is invariant under monotonic transformation?

Let $U(x,y)$ be a utility function. Suppose I have an indifference curve for which $U(x,y) = \bar{U}$. Then $dU = 0$ along the curve and I can rearrange to find the MRS. Suppose I have a monotonic ...
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2answers
106 views

Why do housing and parking cost more in urban than in rural areas, but road access doesn't?

In city centres, land is more expensive than in suburban or rural areas, as land is scarce. Consequentially, housing and parking in cities cost more. However, the same is not true for using the road ...
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0answers
36 views

Independence Axiom for Linear Utility - Who proved this first?

Who first proposed the following axiomatization of linear utility using Independence? I remembered that it was Debreu but I am not so sure. What was the first paper proving this? Consider a ...
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1answer
26 views

A weaker definition of local non-satiation can also imply indifference “curve”

Let $u$ be a continuous utility function on $\mathbb R^2_+\setminus\{0\}$. Consider the following three conditions: Local non satiation says that for any $x \in X$ and $\epsilon > 0$, there exists ...
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1answer
27 views

What is the iff condition for a preference with linear Engel curves (all Engal curves are linear)?

If we restrict the consumption at $\mathbb R_+^n$, then it seems like we are implicitly assuming that the Engel curve pass through the origin, so the iff condition would be homothetic preference. ...
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15 views

Household utility functions

In basic consumer theory, there is an individual consumer who has a utility function, this function induces the individual's demand (given budget and prices), and this in turn determines the ...
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25 views

Finding the optimal consumption bundle given the strictly concave utility function $v(x,y) = U(x) +y$?

I am also finding it difficult to understand what are the fundamental differences between analysing optimal bundles between concave and convex functions ? Does it also happen that the optimal bundle ...
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1answer
21 views

How can i determine the homogeneity degree of Stone Gaery function? [closed]

I dont know how to demonstrate homogeneity degree of this function $(X-\alpha)^{\beta}(Y)^{1-\beta}$ Any idea? Thanks.
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15 views

Do you know any paper that discuss the effect of the deterrence of fines of individuals' behaviours? What is the difference between a fine a fee?

According to Gneezy and Rustichini the presence of an extrinsic reward in activities with a level of intrinsic motivation (e.g. volunteering) reduces intrinsic motivation, thus it may determine ...
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36 views

Dividing households by income

I wonder how one should (or does) divide households by income in a sensible way. Say you want to divide households in a country into five income groups: very small income small income medium income ...
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2answers
32 views

Market baskets: cross-border comparisons

The concept of a market or consumer basket is quite intuitive. I assume a market basket for a given country tells for which goods an average person spends how much of her money. To be able to compare ...
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3answers
83 views

Is the price-quantity diagram fundamentally wrong?

I have wondered about the following diagram: which shows a relationship between Price (Preis) and quantity (Menge). The supply (Angebot) curve is rising with the amount; the demand (Nachfrage) is ...
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1answer
73 views

Consumer Utility Maximization equivalent of economies of scope

Economies of scope captures the idea of having efficiency in variety. I've come across this idea only in producer theory to capture the idea that companies may benefit from their ability to reduce ...
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1answer
16 views

Substitution effect when price of both goods change by the same percentage

I am trying to grasp the concept of income- and substitution effects. The way, I've understood it, the decomposition bundle is found, at the original indifference curve, where the slope equals that ...
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1answer
56 views

GARP and SARP assumed mononticity?

Monotonicity means the decision maker prefer more goods than less. It is not mentioned in textbook that SARP and GARP preasumed monotonicity. GARP: if $a$ is indirectly revealed preferred to $b$, ...
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19 views

How are preferences related to relative prices?

For instance, across regions of a country or between countries. Is that different preferences for food lead to distinct relative prices in different regions or countries? Or is it the other way ...
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1answer
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How is patience modelled?

How is consumer patience modelled? My first thought was "discount factors, but the problem is that it doesn't seem to capture the intuitive notion of what being patient means. For example, the ...
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1answer
53 views

Question about Locally non-satiated preferences

If a consumer has locally non-satiated preferences, which of these 2 bundles is preferred and why? Bundle A: (1,3) Bundle B: (4,2) This is what I've reasoned from my very limited understanding of ...
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1answer
185 views

Shopping example in Kőszegi / Rabin (2006)

In "Section IV Shopping" of Kőszegi / Rabin (A model of reference-dependent preferences, QJE 2006), the example of consumer buying a pair of shoes is given. They claim that "her disutility from ...
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0answers
23 views

Number of items per consumer in a period (German supermarkets)

I'm trying to find some figures, however I cannot come up with a correct formulation, or lack of information in this field. I need the statistics of how many items are sold per receipt (avg) in ...
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1answer
44 views

Optimal choice for a weird leontief function

Compute the optimal choice for a consumer with the following utility function: $$u(x_1, x_2) =\max \{\min(2x_1, x_2), \min(x_1, 2x_2)\}$$ I'm familiar with computing optimal choice for perfect ...
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1answer
254 views

Imperfect Substitutes and Utility Funcitions

The utility function for perfect substitutes is defined as U(X,Y) = aX + bY. If the two goods X&Y are imperfect substitutes what would be their utility function?
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64 views

What is the difference between ordinary income effect and endowment income effect?

As far as I understand: Ordinary income effect: A change in the price of good 1 will affect my future behaviour (the quantities that I will buy of good 1 and good 2). But it doesn't really affect my ...
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168 views

Is the Hicksian demand curve steeper or flatter than Slutsky demand?

Putting price on the vertical axis and quantity on the horizontal axis, is the Slutsky demand steeper or flatter than the Hicksian demand curve? If I calculate the Slutsky and Hicksian substitution ...
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2answers
138 views

what is $b(p)$ in the Almost Ideal Demand System?

In Hal Varian's Microeconomic analysis (page 213) he discusses the Almost Ideal demand system. There he describes the AIDS system as follows: The almost ideal demand system (AIDS) has an ...
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1answer
176 views

Budget lines and Indifference curves: How do you figure where exactly you should draw the IC tangent to a budget line?

In Consumer Choice, we frequently encounter budget lines and indifference curves. For a given budget line, the optimization point is at the point where the indifference curve is just tangent to the ...
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1answer
75 views

Example of a rational and continuous preference relation that does not admit a utility representation

It is well-known that a rational, continuous and monotone preference relation $\succeq$ defined on $\mathbb{R}^L$ admits a utility representation. I would like to understand why monotonicity is ...
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2answers
876 views

Editing formula for finding Marshallian Demand with Cobb-Douglas utility function

Suppose a utility function $u=x_1^ax_2^b$ with $a+b=1$. The following formula finds the values for $x$: $x_1 = \frac{am}{p_1}\\ x_2 = \frac{bm}{p_2}$ But what if the utility function looks like $u=...
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2answers
4k views

What is an example application of a quasilinear utility function?

I am told a quasilinear utility function is a function like $$U(x,y) = \sqrt{x}+y$$ My Question: Can someone provide a real world example of a quasilinear utility function?
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1answer
38 views

Consumer behaviour [closed]

If the last dollar spent on commodity X gives him less marginal utility, he will withdraw this amount from X and spend it on Y if it gives him higher marginal utility. Here consumer how can consumer ...
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1answer
54 views

Imperfect substitute

Perfect substitute- Pepsi and Coca-Cola and Imperfect substitute- Tea and Coffee . Here why tea and coffee considered imperfect substitute?
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159 views

feature of indifference curve [closed]

The characteristic feature of indifference curve is that it will not touch the X axis or Y axis. But as a special case it will touch the Y axis if the combination is between Money and Commodity. "If ...
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1answer
78 views

Differences between Slope of budget line and MRS?

Slope of budget line= change in y/ change in x and also Marginal rate of substitution= change in y/ change in x. If the definitions are same of both then what is the difference between the two? I ...
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1answer
2k views

Are lexicographic preferences strictly monotonic?

I'm a bit confused about lexicographic preferences and whether they abide by the strict monotonicity axiom. The definition we were given for strict monotonicity is: For any two bundles $x$ and $y$,...
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2answers
76 views

How can I motivate a dynamic model using utility and consumer preference where only one good is affected by past consumption?

I've been looking how I can motivate the model I want to estimate using a utility optimization framework. Basically, I want to write a model using two goods: x and y, in two periods: 1 and 2, where ...
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1answer
13k views

Differences between Hicksian and Slutskian approaches

When deriving the substitution effect for both Slutskian and Hicksian definitions, a 'phantom' budget line is drawn.However, for a Slutskian definition, the 'phantom' budget line is drawn parallel to ...
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38 views

If the consumer is not a price taker, does she still set marginal rate of substitution equal to the price ratio?

Consider some consumer who consumes good $x$ and $y$. The price of $x$ is fixed to be $k$. The price of $y$ is $c(y)$. The consumer's marginal rate of substitution is given by $\frac{-x}{y}$. If the ...
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1answer
135 views

Proof for homogeneity of elasticities

Throughout microeconomic literature i see the following restiriction placed on the nature of elasticities in demand system estimation. This being for some arbitarary good $x$ we require price ...
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1answer
646 views

Money Metric Utility Function: Budget constraints become Utility Functions?

Im currently reading up on the "money metric utility function" (also known as the minimum income function or direct compensation function). By definition it is defined as: $$m(\text{p},\text{x})\...
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2answers
182 views

Is utility in neoclassical economics a circular argument/concept?

Neoclassical economics as a utility function that represents a consumer's preference ordering over a choice set. Joan Robinson criticized utility for being a circular concept: "Utility is the ...
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2answers
463 views

Strongly and strictly increasing utility functions

What's the difference between Strongly and strictly increasing utility functions? What I know is that if $x'>>x $ where $x'$ has all elements strictly greater than $x$ then $U(x')>U(x)$, I ...
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1answer
38 views

Sunk cost fallacy- is it a bug or a feature?

I was having a conversation with a colleague regarding sunk costs, and discussion came up that the appeal of falling for the sunk cost fallacy might be a feature rather than a flaw, as it is behavior ...
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1answer
343 views

Diminishing Nature of Utility Function From Convexity of Preference $\succsim$?

Is diminishing nature of utility function in consumer theory stemming from the assumption of convexity on the preference relation $\succsim$? My understanding is: $\succsim$ is convex. Then, $u(.)$...
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1answer
6k views

Calculate the substitution effect

Utility function $$ U=4{q_1}^{0.5}+q_2 \\ Y=10 $$ $$ p_1=p_2=1 $$ Then $p_1$ rises to 2. I would like to ask how to calculate the substitution effect on the demand for q1? What I have done is ...
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3answers
72 views

In Supply and Demand is Quantity the Amount of Inventory of the Amount of Units Sold?

I am new to economics in school and we are going over supply and demand. This may sound like a very simple question, but I just need one thing clarified. When quantity is mentioned in the graphs is ...
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1answer
1k views

Whats the difference between local non-satiation and monotonicity?

Is there a practical difference between local non-satiation and montonicity? Can one exist in a utility function without the other?
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4answers
366 views

what is consumer surplus practically?

In Microeconomics producer surplus is equivalent to profits minus fixed costs. However getting a tangible definition of consumer surplus has been difficult for me to ponder. What is the practical ...