Questions tagged [cost]

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Help the manager to decide produce or not to produce the additional batch of a product

The manager decides whether to produce an additional batch of a product in the amount of 10 thousand pieces, which will cost 150 thousand. rub. At the same time, the production cost before that was 30 ...
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2answers
108 views

Mathematically show that MC cross AC can only occur on upward sloping part of MC curve

Question as in title, does anyone know how to show it? with mean value theorem? I can prove that AC is minimised at MC=AC but I'm not sure how to show MC can only cross AC at upward-sloping point of ...
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1answer
226 views

Is there a formal definition of opportunity costs, economic costs, and/or economic profits?

[Edited to remove a mistake in a definition and some typos.] According to various econ textbooks (e.g. this one), there is a fundamental distinction between economic profit and accounting profit: (i) ...
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What is normal capacity?

The average variable cost will generally fall as output increases from zero to the normal capacity output due to the occurrence of increasing returns. But beyond the normal capacity output average ...
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3answers
67 views

Why min AC = min SRAC at the minima of AC curve?

At the lowest point of long run average cost curve AC, the SAC is also at its minimum and that is not the case with any other SAC curve bounded by the envelope. Why is that?
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Why does LRAC not connect the minima of SRAC curves? [duplicate]

Can anyone please provide an intuitive explanation and proper mathematical reason for non-intersection of SRAC and LRAC at the minimas of SRAC? I am seeing conflicting [1] [2] answers on the site ...
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2answers
44 views

external benefit confusion

I'm a little confused by the following question and answer provided by MRU: Fruit farmers pay beekeepers for their honeybees’ pollination services. Honeybees provide an external benefit to fruit ...
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1answer
61 views

Relation between marginal cost and output elasticities

Does anyone know of any results that show the link between marginal cost and the output elasticities analytically? I am looking at production and cost theory books but can't find any results that ...
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2answers
68 views

Sunk costs - Book value and Market value

i try to understand the concept of sunk cost and how we compute sunk costs when there is a difference between book and market value. For example, if the book value of assets is ...
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35 views

Fixed cost, sunk costs and variable costs

i need to answer to this question but i'm wonder if i need to use the short-run cost function (C = wL * rK) of not. Can you help me ? This is the statement : A small business owner employs 5 workers. ...
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2answers
5k views

Supermarket selling seasonal items below cost?

In a British supermarket, I saw the prices of Christmas chocolate gift boxes being cut dramatically (£1.50 to £0.15, and £7.50 to £0.22). I don't quite understand this behaviour, where the chocolate ...
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24 views

Are economic profits above normal for many firms in a perfectly-competitive increasing-cost industry?

In a perfectly-competitive constant-cost industry, all firms will have normal profits in the long run. This fact is very clear to me as the long run supply curve is perfectly elastic and hence each ...
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How can costs curves shift in the short-run?

I have been researching about Orsted economies of scale strategy and I am trying to argue that due to acquisitions and aliances, the costs curves of a firm may shift in the short-run, consequently ...
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1answer
77 views

How to calculate the minimun of Average Fixed Cost knowing the Average Fixed Cost [closed]

Given the Average Fixed Cost, how does one calculate its minimum?
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1answer
2k views

Is it true that if marginal cost is constant, then average variable cost is also constant and equals marginal cost?

I'm inclined to think yes because marginal cost only depends on variable cost (fixed costs don't matter), but I'm not 100% certain. Basically, my thought process is that marginal cost of producing one ...
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7answers
3k views

Does a store suffering increased theft generally cause higher prices?

If a store suffers an increase in theft, will it generally lead to higher prices at that store? My answer is that prices should have already been set to maximize the trade off between profit-per-sale ...
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1answer
606 views

Fixed cost of a firm

Suppose that a firm has a total cost function given by: $TC(q) = \frac{5}{q+1} + 5 + 5q + q^2$. What is the fixed cost? I seem to be able to come up with two "answers", which cannot be correct. My ...
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1answer
50 views

Will a shift in the average total cost curve mean that the marginal cost curve will also shift up?

I understand the basic concept of marginal cost and average total cost. I am currently learning about costs curve for an oligopoly I read online that the marginal cost is not determined by fixed ...
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1answer
264 views

Deriving long-run cost functions from production function

Suppose that I have a production function $(aK + bL)^3$ in a perfect competition where a and b are constants. I am confused on how to obtain the long-run cost function from this production function ...
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1answer
1k views

Fixed costs in the long run

Can anyone please help me understand how fixed costs in the long run are zero? In Microeconomics by J. M. Perloff, the author gives the example of a factory's rent and says that if we are talking ...
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2answers
29 views

Are there any economic theories around the concept of companies focusing on that which is easier to calcuate?

A lot of the organisations I have worked for have focused on that which is easy to calculate. For example, direct cost savings are often easy to calculate, but analysing the wider implications of a ...
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3answers
405 views

Is it possible that the minimum point of a short run cost curve does not touch the long run cost curve?

In the answer to this question, the answerer said "the minimum point of a short run cost curve will be above the long run cost curve". Is it true? If so, how would it be so? I thought that if e.g. ...
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1answer
115 views

Why is the opportunity cost 0 in this case?

My book says that the opportunity cost of purchase of a specialized equipment that has no alternative use is zero and hence such an expenditure is a sunk cost. However, while calculating the user cost ...
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2answers
900 views

Why is the price of capital ‘r’ ? (From Cost function)

according to the Cost formula in microeconomics class, Total Fixed Cost is represented as “rK” (K as in unchanging, fixed K) now my economics teacher tells me this ‘r’ is the interest rate at which ...
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1answer
408 views

Interpeting equivalent annual cash flows

So i have this question: RainMan Inc. is in the business of producing rain upon request. They must decide between two investment projects; a new airplane for seeding rain clouds or a new weather ...
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1answer
19 views

Trade cost on Endowment model

I think in real endowment model, if there's trade cost as 't', then the MRS should be really small or large to make a consumer trade his endowment goods. Is there any model include this trade cost or ...
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1answer
47 views

Costs of transportation

I assume that it makes sense to ask for the energy costs of transportation of different goods per weight and volumetric mass density, depending on the means of transportation (truck, train, ship, etc.)...
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1answer
56 views

Marginal Cost Calculation issue

I calculated the Marginal cost for the below question. But it seems the results are wrong After coming up with an innovative idea for a new product, you paid 4000 to an industrial designer to draw ...
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1answer
66 views

fixed an marginal cost calculation issue

I'm trying to solve a question that is quite difficult for me. I did part of the question but, bit difficult to decide the exact answer for the below question. After coming up with an innovative ...
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1answer
443 views

Can implicit costs be negative?

I think that conventionally implicit costs are positive but if for example we consider a negative interest rate as an implicit cost, the implicit cost would be negative. Is this true? Can implicit ...
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2answers
350 views

In perfect competition, why is there economic loss if marginal cost > marginal revenue?

Here's a graph for reference: In the left graph, I read from a book (CFA L1 notes) that At any output above the quantity where $MR = MC$, the firm will be generating losses on its marginal ...
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156 views

Vertical Marginal Cost curves

When would a marginal cost curve be vertical? I understand this happens when the marginal cost jumps, from say 0 to 100, but in such a case, I think there should be a discontinuity rather than a ...
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1answer
338 views

Decision over "max" production function:

I've been presented with the following problem: $$y=3(x_3)^{\frac13}(\max\{x_1,8x_2\})^{\frac13}$$ And the objective is to both maximize profit and minimize cost. First of all, if the problems are ...
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38 views

Excessive entry without fixed costs

Mankiw & Whinston (1986) show that the market may contain too many firms. The intuition is that if a firm charges a suboptimal high price, a rival has a demand curve that is "too high" and can ...
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1answer
4k views

EOQ - how to calculate holding cost

This is very simple, however, I have the following setup Suppose that the company ABC has a product that shows a constant annual demand rate of 3600 items. One item costs £3. Ordering cost is £20 per ...
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2answers
177 views

Why don't public transport networks have more routes to each terminal in order to reduce the number of transfers?

When using public transport, we often need to transfer to a different route during of the journey. These transfers have costs – I can think of the following, but there may be more. If we're reading, ...
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2answers
219 views

How does the EBQ formular come out?

I figured out how the economic order quantity (EOQ) formula comes out. I know it is quite similar with economic batch quantity (EBQ), sometimes termed economic production quantity (EPQ). I just don't ...
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4answers
258 views

How to track costs and calculate price?

I run a large Massively Multiplayer Online (MMO) gaming community and one of the services we’ve try to provide to our members is crafting. One of the challenges of this has been determining the price ...
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1answer
760 views

Does Average Total Cost (ATC) include implicit opportunity costs?

Does the average total cost include opportunity costs? If so, are these opportunity costs considered fixed costs or variable costs? How are they calculated.
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2answers
117 views

Is there a cost to running the NewYork Stock Exchange? Does it affect the price of stocks sold on the exchange?

Is there a cost to running the New York Stock Exchange? For example electricity costs, management costs, rents on the building(s). How do these costs (if any) affect the price of stocks sold on the ...
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3answers
1k views

Why is railway electrification in North America far less common than in Europe?

Why is railway electrification in North America far less common than in Europe? I suspect that the answer has something to do with the economics of electrification. In Europe, railway ...
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139 views

Question on an argument in "The Myth of Absolute Advantage"

Brandis (1967) argues that "absolute advantage does not exist" and "that it is a logical impossibility". (See also comment, comment, reply.) My question here is very narrow and specific. I do not ...
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5k views

Understanding the shape of a Marginal Cost Curve

My class IB has just discussed allocative efficiency and hence consumer and producer supply. They explained the concepts with a diagram like this: It all made perfect sense to me until it was ...
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3answers
2k views

Is it possible to have constant marginal cost and decreasing average cost simultaneously? [closed]

I thought about possibility of occurring such event in the case of presence of fixed costs, but I would like to know others opinions.
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2answers
1k views

Proof that for increasing AC MC(Q)>AC(Q) at any Q>0? [closed]

I know the "common sense" proof, but how can we prove it algebraically?
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441 views

Monopoly marginal cost [closed]

I have recently been stumped on a microeconomics question where it gives a monopoly firm, its operating ATC (average total cost), price (average revenue), and quantity traded. First thing it wants me ...
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1answer
206 views

How to Graph Short-Run Average Cost?

I've learnt to roughly draw graphs of various functions like isoquants of Cobb Douglas function, i.e., $k=√q/L$. Here first derivative is negative so it's downward sloping and second derivative is ...
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1answer
1k views

Are all points on the Long Run Average Cost (LRAC) curve productively efficient?

The definition of productive efficiency is that any given output is produced for the lowest possible cost. In the short run, only the minimum point on the SRAC curve is productively efficient - this ...
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3answers
574 views

How do I calculate the cost per usage of a machine?

If you buy a machine for 10.000 dollars, which costs as a yearly write-off 2000 dollars, how do I calculate the cost per usage of a machine? Do you just divide the the yearly write-off by the times ...
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1answer
4k views

Why is ATC tangent to Demand in a Monopolistic or Mopolistically Competitive Firm Making Zero Profit?

I understand that the Average Total Cost is equivalent to demand in a zero profiting monopoly or monopolistically competitive firm in order for there to be zero profits (when ATC = P at a given ...