Questions tagged [currency]

a generally accepted form of money, including coins and paper notes , which is issued by a government and circulated within an economy.

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What is the difference between microeconomics money and macroeconomics money?

In microeconomics, \$USD are a store of value. I can sell a candy bar for \$1, and I can hang onto that \$1 for a year and then buy the same candy bar for that same \$1. If I print \$1 (and get away ...
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Conversion of GDP PPP International \$ 2005 into GDP PPP International \$ 2011

Essentially I have two different datasets that I'm trying to consolidate. One set of data comes from the World Bank Databank, and is a set of historical GDP PPP values for all countries expressed in ...
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why is the term fiat money or fiat currency and is it the same as legal tender or are there any differences?

I learnt some very basic economics learning about 2, 2.5 decades back. Recently, while reading some article on the web, I came to know about 'fiat money' and 'fiat currency' but have been unable to ...
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Why does a weaker currency make sovereign debt cheaper?

Investopedia tells me that a weaker currency will reduce sovereign debt burdens. It is quoted as saying 'a weaker currency makes [these] payments effectively less expensive over time.' However, I ...
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Do Cuban state workers really earn 24 times less than privately employed workers? [migrated]

Excuse the provocative question in the title, it's not meant to be read literally. A recent video by the Guardian looks at the difference between public sector workers and the privately employed in ...
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How is an spontaneous currency changing phenomenon called?

On November 2019 I went back to Venezuela, and the biggest shock for me was that people started trading goods using US Dollars. This isn't "legal", but it has become so common that I hardly ever had ...
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Data for currency crises

Dear StackExchange users, I am currently studying currency crises and for that I need data from 1980-2018. I have used data from IMF, OECD, BIS, WORLD BANK, etc., but I still have some missing data ...
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What faction determines the strength of a state's currency and can that determination be rebelled?

I know that to determine the strength of a state's currency (a currency's Equilibrium Price), the following factors are contemplated by some faction, but I don't know what is that faction that ...
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What benefits does Bitcoin (i.e. cryptocurrency) offer?

I really, really like moderate inflation. I live in Sweden where the interest rates just went negative because we are on the brink of deflation, and the rate of inflation we have now is far too low. ...
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153 views

How does a bank convert one currency to another?

Say for example I sell ZAR and buy USD. What happens behind the scenes so that the local ZAR bank is able to deposit USD into my account? Does the bank require some sort of USD cash reserve? How do ...
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On statements of Dalio

Last night I was watching the following videos https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YVLJRGA5uAk and https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AhDrvQiNV5M&t I am considering the bet on gold with respect to his ...
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Forward Currency Exchange

Could anyone help me understand the forward bid and ask for PLN/RON for the next 3 months. I know : Bid - Ask EUR/RON 4,7261 - 4,7309 CAD/RON 3,2302 - 3,...
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What does 'currency convertibility' mean?

As a student with almost zero background in economics, I've been struggling to comprehend the notion of the currency convertibility. Most of the definitons I've found online talk about the ease with ...
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Calculating the amount paid for a loan in today's dollars

So I was trying to figure out the amount paid for a loan in today's dollars using two different methods but they give me different results. I was hoping that someone could explain which method is ...
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Measuring economic growth in GDP (in USD) vs Real GDP (domestic currency)

I've noticed that a lot of data online seems to measure a non-US country in USD. This seems odd to me, because doesn't that mean that US fiscal/monetary policies, politics, and economics would affect ...
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Are foreign currency exchange rate transitive?

For a given period, if USD strengthened against EUR by 5%, and EUR strengthened against GBP by 3%, does that imply that USD must have strengthened against GBP by ~8%?
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What strategies can the president employ to deflate the dollar

United States president Donald Trump has publicly declared a desire to deflate the value of the dollar. I have read in news reports that he has asked aids to find ways to decrease the dollar's ...
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How interest rate affects currency

I am quite new to economics. I was reading about changes in interest rates and its effect on currency value. The fact is as interest rates increases, the currency value also increases and vice versa....
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Can inflation occur in a positive-sum game currency system such as the Stack Exchange reputation system?

As most active users of this site know, the way the reputation system works is that everyone starts out with 1 reputation and a user can earn more reputation by asking good questions and writing ...
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Should Finland leave the eurozone?

Finland's economic recovery from the shock of the global financial crisis of 2007–2008 has been very weak. The country has been in recession for the past three years, with GDP expected to expand by ...
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How does the Federal Reserve reduce “excess reserves”?

Over the last few years, the amount of currency is circulation (and the corresponding liability on the Fed's balance sheet) has been growing; however, the asset side of the BS hasn't increased. By ...
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Real Exchange Rate vs PPP rate

I'm having troubles to understand the difference between the Real Exchange Rate and the PPP rate. I know the first one is calculated using a basket of goods and services so that the non-tradeable ...
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Consequences of removing hard currency [closed]

If an appropriate electronic system were implemented governments would know how much money there is in circulation, who has it and if some illegal transaction has been done. This measure could help ...
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Why currency purchasing power is linked to confidence in central banks

From the New Statesman, http://www.newstatesman.com/politics/economy/2016/02/coming-storm, "Ever since the collapse of the Bretton Woods system of pegged exchange rates in 1971, the sole guarantee ...
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Dealing with Missing Values in Diff-in-Diff Estimation

To preface this, I am asking this question on the Econ SE because I was made aware on Cross Validated that Difference in Difference estimation is quite an economics specific method. The picture above ...
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How does key currency work?

When a country make too many of their currencies, it will eventually lower the currencies' value and inflation would occur. But why won't key currency work like this? If the US is making more and ...
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What are the advantages and disadvantages to a country's people when the national currency is the world's reserve currency? [duplicate]

Today, the world's reserve currency is USD. At the start of the 20th century, the reserve currency was the British Pound GBP. Using U.S as an example to narrow the scope, what are the advantages and ...
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Currency triplets - arbitrage opportunity?

I have three currency pairs - USDEUR - 0.88, USDINR - 67.13 and EURINR - 75.88 , so simple math tells me that EURINR should be USDINR/USDEUR = 76.28 ...this is a fairly significant deviation from an ...
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Currency Devaluation - As a Means of Paying Off Debt

From https://www.sapling.com/8117368/debt-handled-currency-devaluation: Currency devaluation will not only affect consumer debts, but it will affect how a country pays back its national debt. If a ...
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What happens if a country omits the zeros of it's current money?

I mean, for example, the government changes all x10000 to x1; where x equals to currency of the respected country (Dollar, for instance).
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Why exchange rates of national currency are usually stable, where as cryptocurrency like bitcoin and ethereum is highly volatile?

Exchange rate of national currency like US dollar or INR don't fluctuate much during a month or year, but the exchange rate of cryptocurrency like bitcoin is highly volatile even in a single day. What ...
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Effect of interest rates on currencies

I always understood that high interest rates in country A attract investors and cause the currency to appreciate. However, the interest rate parity theory suggests that high interest rates weaken a ...
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Wouldn't abolition of cash give rise to a substitute currency?

Some countries (e.g. Sweden and Denmark) plan to abolish physical cash in the future and restrict the use of cash to electronical deposits. One of the reasons for this is to prevent hoarding / boost ...
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Why does capital flight cause inflation?

Context: I was watching a video about Venezuela, and, it all started with capital flight due to poor confidence in the government. The government tried to stop it, and in the process it created a ...
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What is the optimal fiscal transfer rate between regions in a currency union?

I'm aware of the theory of optimal currency areas, and that both the Euro and the US dollar* are technically not optimal. This would tend to cause their optimal monetary policy to diverge over time. ...
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Facebook's Libra - Why would it vary in value

Facebook has come up Libra its version of crypto-currency. The unique feature of Libra is the "reserve" which backs Libra. The reserve is supposed to be held in stable global currencies (USD, GBP, ...
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Currency board, why the fluctuation in local currency

I have very basic question about currency boards: Assume that a country floats a new local currency "N" with the currency board model. It uses USD as the reserve currency. To begin with 1 N = 1 USD. ...
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Purchasing power of currency abroad

Say you have two countries A and B. Suppose we have a situation where country A's currency can purchase much more in country B than the other way round. What causes this phenomenen? Is it possible ...
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Where do Montenegro and Kosovo get their euros from?

Both Montenegro and Kosovo have unilaterally (?) decided to use euros as their official currencies. I think that most of their capital exists only as records in bank registers, so there is not much ...
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Are currencies equilibrating?

I was travelling recently and realised that dollars, euros, British pounds and Swiss francs all have more or less the same worth (i.e. 1 dollar $\cong $1 pound $\cong$ 1 euro $\cong $ 1 chf). This was ...
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Value of Currency Itself

What is the value of an individual piece of currency itself based on the efficiencies it allows in trade, in contrast to the value it represents? For example, people often talk (complain) about the ...
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How is seigniorage redistributed in the Eurozone?

An ECB page notes that: As euro banknotes travel freely across borders, at any one time the number of banknotes in circulation registered at each national central bank can vary enormously. The ...
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What would be the effects of an expiration date on currency?

Let's say we introduce a monetary system where each piece of money is printed with an expiration date - a year, perhaps. I'm imagining something rather different from inflation (although I do not ...
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Theory of Optimal Currency Areas

Should a country be more inclined or less inclined to join a currency union (common currency) under the following events: a) Increase in the size and frequency of AD shocks to the economy. b)...
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Are IMF interventions in currency crises good leading indicators for the performance of financial assets in that country?

The point in time during a currency crisis when the IMF finally steps in tends to be relatively close to the trough of the crisis - at least it seems that way anecdotally. Is there any research that ...
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Calculating nominal GDP

I would like to understand one detail of how nominal GDP of a country in a given year is calculated. It seems to me that the GDP in each country is first calculated in the national currency and then ...
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“Increasing trade barriers causes a country’s currency to appreciate”?

Mishkin (2016, p. 476) writes: Barriers to free trade such as tariffs (taxes on imported goods) and quotas (restrictions on the quantity of foreign goods that can be imported) can affect the ...
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Why do different countries have different currency?

Why do different countries have different currency? I have this question because I want to know why to divide it? If it's not divided then we can easily use the money anywhere and we won't need to ...
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Nominal GDP to Current purchasing power parity

Hi I would like to convert nominal GDP in current US dollars to current purchasing power parity in 2011 US dollars. Is this nominal GDP already converted? if GDP were in LCU I would convert it to ...
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Can the major indice of an exporting nation decrease at the same time the currency devalues?

In the UK, the FTSE100 is achieving record highs at the same time the currency (GBP) is depreciating rapidly. The media often correlate the two events by reporting that since the indice is made of ...