Questions tagged [currency]

a generally accepted form of money, including coins and paper notes , which is issued by a government and circulated within an economy.

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Gold coins as currency?

My question is about gold standard. But not the version I always see mentioned (trading bills for gold at a set price). I mean having gold coins in circulation. For example, new currency consists ...
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because bitcoins do not generate earnings, then (it is a ponzi scheme)?

What does the author mean with: Since Bitcoins do not generate any actual earnings, they must appreciate in value to ensure that people are willing to hold them. Why must they appreciate in ...
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How can the HKMA peg the Hong Kong dollar at 7.8 HKD/USD for so long?

A lot of pegged exchange rate systems don't stay pegged for so long (e.g. because the central bank run out of reserves to maintain their values) So far I understand that the HKD is 100% backed by the ...
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867 views

What made The Wörgl Experiment successful?

Background: In 1932, in the midst of the Great Depression, the small town of Wörgl in Austria successfully experimented with its own local currency (in the form of a stamp scrip) ... They not only ...
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3k views

Benefits of a weak national currency

I often hear that developing economies can benefit from a weak national currency. For example China as exporter deliberately makes its national currency weaker, so that it gains an advantage. Are ...
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61 views

How digital currency (like Bitcoin) proponents solve the problem of its high volatility to make it a good candidate to replace fiat?

I have recently read an article about a family living with no fiat currency for several years. Indeed there are lots of advantages of using a digital currency. I am wondering if having an important ...
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149 views

Demand Curve of Foreign Exchange

My high-school Macroeconomics textbook states that 'There is an inverse relationship between the price of foreign currency, or exchange rate, and demand for foreign exchange. When the exchange rate ...
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110 views

Are there plausible scenarios for the U.S. dollar to fall out of use as the world's reserve currency?

The U.S. has maintained an overall trade deficit for decades, essentially exporting money. For many countries this fund of 'ex-patriated' dollars has been a big tool of trade. Everyone accepts dollars....
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251 views

Why are they raising interest rates in Brazil?

How does raising interest rates in Brazil (and Russia) help fight inflation and defend their currency? I understand that the basic model is that raising the rates is meant to encourage banks to lend ...
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432 views

Why are CAD, AUD known as commodity currencies

Why are some currencies like CAD, AUD known as commodity currencies?
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347 views

How does Egypt prevent people from arbitraging their currency?

Apparently Egypt uses a fixed exchange rate so there is a substantial difference between the government rate for the Egyptian pound and the price on the street. What prevents someone from just buying ...
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What is the relationship between inflation and imports/exports?

According to the aggregate demand curve, when the price level is higher, the real GDP demanded is lower. One of the explanations given is a consequence of the Mundell-Fleming model: "As the price ...
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1answer
11k views

Why did US dollar appreciate during the Global Economic Crisis (2007-09)

We know that the US dollar exchange rate increased during the global recession while usually when an economy performs weakly its currency should depreciate. How was there still a huge demand for USD ...
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Uncovered Interest Parity question

I am trying to understand the fact that, given that the uncovered interest parity holds, a rise in dollar interest rates will cause the dollar to appreciate. Is this a good intuition? Uncovered ...
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253 views

What would happen in Venezuela if the currency exchange control is removed overnight?

What would happen in Venezuela if the government all of a sudden starts offering currency exchange by the prices of the free market? To my knowledge, the main reason for the government in Venezuela ...
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Why does a currency devaluation make a country more attractive for foreign direct investment?

The author of this article says "[the devaluation of the yuan] may also have impact on [foreign direct investment (FDI)] if China becomes a more attractive destination vis-a-vis India". Why is this? ...
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How could the Roman sestertii/sesterces be converted into modern terms (say 2017 US$)?

Of course, the value of the sesterti must itself have fluctuated over the centuries it was in use. And so if I must narrow it down, I am particularly interested in its value during the time of ...
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209 views

Why does every electronic transaction of USD legally take place on American territory?

In an article of a respected German newspaper (Die Zeit) I found the following statement (translation by me): 90 % of all foreign exchange trades are dealt in USD. Since every electronic ...
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Does Dogecoin or Bitcoin have a more appropriate rate of monetary inflation?

The supply of new Bitcoins and Dogecoins is depicted in the graph below. The Bitcoin inflation rate is currently higher than the Dogecoin rate, but it reduces sharply to a rate close to zero. It ...
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What is the maximum number of characters in a currency symbol?

In the program I am writing, I need to show a currency selector. I would like it to display currency symbols. For this, I need to know what is the longest, in characters, currency symbol (or rather ...
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Can small countries use a foreign currency as their official currency?

Having one of the "big currencies" (US-Dollar, Euro, Japanese Yen) is of several advantages: Tourism: There is a huge amount of people who can directly use it (317*10^6 US citizens, 337*10^6 people ...
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How do countries create their own currencies (and give them meaningful value)?

Regardless of why they'd do it, what do countries do to make their own currency, replacing the old one, and give their new one value? I sorta get how it works, but this kind of economics is still ...
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131 views

Can banks 'create' money on their own or do they need help from other banks?

My current understanding of the banking money multiplication process goes as follows: Alice comes along and deposits 100 cash into Bank A. Bank A gains 100 in vault cash (reserves) as an asset and 100 ...
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Confused about relation of inflation to a currency's depreciation?

I'm a complete newbie to this foreign exchange stuff and was reading about the impact a country's price levels have on exchange rates. So from what I understand, the general idea is that inflation ...
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109 views

Effect of Strengthening US Dollar on Commodities

Many commodities are prices in US dollars. If the Dollar strengthens, then commodities (in non-US countries) will become more expensive. From the consumers' (suppliers') point of view, this should be ...
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How do excessive foreign reserves cause inflation?

I have studied that accumulation of foreign reserve has the potential to raise inflation levels in economy as the money base increases (= domestic currency + foreign reserve increases) and if it ...
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188 views

Is it necessary to have currency in an ideal centrally-planned economy?

Under this condition, the price of goods are definitely meaningless.
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Why does a stronger currency have a tightening effect on economic conditions?

http://www.economist.com/blogs/buttonwood/2015/12/central-bank-predictability Ever since 1987, banks have been willing to cut rates when markets have wobbled. Driving down bond yields has been an ...
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133 views

Questions regarding foreign exchange online trading

I am currently studying economics in college and taking course Macroeconomics and International Finance which covers foreign exchange market topic. The class is very crowded since there are more than ...
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Does each stock exchange only trade in one currency?

And if not, how are currency exchange rates accounted for?
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536 views

Market Behavior under expected and unexpected news

I found the following text in the paper "Real-time Price Discovery in Foreign Exchange" The general pattern is one of very quick exchange rate conditional mean adjustment, characterized by a jump ...
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405 views

Is there any pressure to keep currency exchange rates around 1?

I notice that for any pair of currencies, the exchange rates seem to stay around 1 (as opposed to, say, 1,000,000). This is no longer the case if one country experiences an economic crisis that ...
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35 views

What happened to the Zimbabwe cash dollar after the introduction of Dollarization?

Let's say, before dollarization, I owned 1 million Zimbabwean dollars in cash and the next day dollarization went into effect. So in dollarization, the current Zimbabwean dollars will be invalid and ...
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1answer
224 views

Dealing with Missing Values in Diff-in-Diff Estimation

To preface this, I am asking this question on the Econ SE because I was made aware on Cross Validated that Difference in Difference estimation is quite an economics specific method. The picture above ...
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Does a strong dollar achieve the same tightening effect on the economy as rising interest rates?

Rising interest rates means the cost of borrowing USD goes up. A stronger USD means USD becomes more expensive. Wouldn't that naturally follows that the cost of borrowing USD goes up since each dollar ...
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The Currency Value

On what basis, The value of any currency changes: Does it depend on re-paying the loans. Or it depends on trade & exporting. (e.g. The "Dollar" equals 13 Egyptian pounds... What's the reason? Is ...
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Why is Indian rupee is stable against the USD even though most other currencies weakening?

The Indian Rupee (INR) seems fairly stable against the USD (1 USD = 62-64 INR) in the recent times even though most other currencies have weakened against USD, some by 20-30%. Apparently, INR is ...
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146 views

Currency substitution after withdrawal from a currency union?

Currency substitution is the situation where a country uses a foreign currency. For example, Montenegro and Kosovo unilaterally use the euro, El Salvador and Panama unilaterally use the dollar. In ...
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Currency Values, Developing Economies and Balance of Trade

For a developing economy like India, where balance of trade is negative, is it good to have a weak dollar or a strong dollar? Dollar value increases (Rupee, the local currency, weakens), imports (...
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512 views

Who gets newly printed currency?

The central bank of a country is responsible of the printing of new currency notes and coins/ money to the economy of a country. My question is how they introduce this new money into the economy in a '...
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106 views

Why would Switzerland, with its export-driven economy, worry about weakening against the dollar?

I was reading about the SNB's decision to abandon the peg in 2015, and among the various articles I read, one from CNBC quoted the SNB president saying the following "The euro has depreciated ...
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820 views

Why would a government allow currency speculation?

I would like to know the reasons for any government to allow currency speculation. What is the benefit for a country and for it's people if the currency speculation is allowed? My cousin's farm is ...
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What are the main differences in a macroeconomic model, i.e. New-Keynesian DSGE, under a currency substitution (full dollarization) scheme?

I have searched arround the web and economic journals trying to find out research related to a macroeconomic model in which the country is fully dollarized, but I haven't had any luck. My main concern ...
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Real time data map about the amount of a currency that are held in the world ?

Where can I see in real time data about the amount of a currency that is held in central banks (and maybe other significant places) ? A map would be great. I would like to know if there is an ...
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What is the effect on GDP when foreigners buy lots of domestic bonds?

I am trying to figure out the effect on GDP of foreigners buying lots of domestic bonds. From what I understand, when foreigners buy lots of domestic bonds: They need to convert their foreign ...
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Why isn't there an “ideal value” for a given currency? [closed]

If a currency can be worth too little (e.g. needing \$10,000,000,000 to buy a loaf of bread) and worth too much (e.g. being able to buy a loaf of bread for $0.00001), why isn't there an "ideal value" (...
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In this scenario, which coin is more valuable?

There are two coins, Coin A and Coin B. You can transfer Coin A for Coin B or Coin B for Coin A only in the two following ways: Give 100 Coin A for 10 Coin B Or Give 10 Coin B for 50 Coin A In ...
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381 views

Is there something that does not change its value that can be used to measure currency inflation?

Currency is represented as an exchange for something valuable, whether it be an object or work. Prices for objects can change over time, depending on demand and supply, making objects unreliable to ...
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Can the major indice of an exporting nation decrease at the same time the currency devalues?

In the UK, the FTSE100 is achieving record highs at the same time the currency (GBP) is depreciating rapidly. The media often correlate the two events by reporting that since the indice is made of ...
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525 views

Why currency purchasing power is linked to confidence in central banks

From the New Statesman, http://www.newstatesman.com/politics/economy/2016/02/coming-storm, "Ever since the collapse of the Bretton Woods system of pegged exchange rates in 1971, the sole guarantee ...