Questions tagged [debt]

An obligation to pay another party at some point in the future. Examples include national debt, corporate bonds, and household credit.

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Possible “debt-to-…” ratio indicators for debt-to-economic growth relationship?

Suppose we are interested in the relationship between public or external debt and economic growth. One can look at the debt-to-GDP ratio or debt-to-export ratio. What may be other possible "debt-...
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Printing Money vs. Issuing International Bonds

I'm reading Niall Ferguson's The Ascent of Money and I had a question about the economic difference between printing money vs. selling bonds to foreign entities. At one point in the book, the author ...
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Why does a weaker currency make sovereign debt cheaper?

Investopedia tells me that a weaker currency will reduce sovereign debt burdens. It is quoted as saying 'a weaker currency makes [these] payments effectively less expensive over time.' However, I ...
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Value flow in economy - redefinition credit and money?

There are voices that there are already too much debt in the world (government, personal, government debt) and that can be the cause of the crisis. From the other hand the the only solution offered by ...
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Contribution by each factor

Must admit it has been many years since I have done advanced calculations or anything remotely like it, so please bear with me. I have problem that I hope to get some help with. Say I have below ...
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How have central banks been injecting currency after crises since 2007?

In an article by Jean-Michel Naulot about the 2007–2008 financial crisis, I read (my translation): Although central banks had an exemplary reaction at the time of the [2007–2008] crisis, they ...
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Spending despite fiscal deficit

This is going to be a rather simple question. Surprisingly, I did not find quite a lot of answers satisfactorily explaining my point. The question goes like this- The USA, under the Trump regime, ...
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Does Medicaid or Medicare represent a higher risk to the Federal Government Solvency and Debt going forward?

I'm trying to understand not only which program is expected to be larger in terms of costs, but which one has the least capacity to adjust (reduce benefits if revenues for the program fall).
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How to interpret Whited Wu index (WW-index)

I want to study financial constraints on companies of different groups and for that I try to use Whited-Wu index: ...
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What Level of Government Debt to GDP Ratio is Sustainable?

I was reading that Japan has a debt to gdp ratio of 240pc and I cannot understand why this has not left the country "bankrupt"? From looking at this like an ordinary person this level would be ...
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Why don't governments exploit negative interest rates more than they currently do?

At the moment many governments, such as Finland's, are able to borrow money at negative interest rates. My question is: why don't they borrow as much money as possible while interest rates are ...
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Debt Held By The Public

Following off the back of this question on debt-to-GDP vs. debt held by public-to-GDP - Difference between "Debt Held by the Public" and "Total Public Debt Outstanding"?: So in ...
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Currency Devaluation - As a Means of Paying Off Debt

From https://www.sapling.com/8117368/debt-handled-currency-devaluation: Currency devaluation will not only affect consumer debts, but it will affect how a country pays back its national debt. If a ...
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Is a high borrowing rate bad?

I'm not an economist, so this may be a stupid question, but why are high borrowing rates among individuals and corporations bad? Like, I've heard high student and credit card debt mentioned as reasons ...
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Useful models/theory private debt and borrowed constrained households

In macro oriented research papers the role of private debt is discussed and that apparently when there is a lot of private debt in the economy, households tend to be borrowed constrained.. Could ...
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What happens to a country with lot of debt?

What happens to a country with lot of debt? As far as I know, debt is a way to get hands on extra money which will put burden on the future governments. What if every successive government keeps ...
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Why don't we have many-to-many lending yet?

Trying to research this for some time, but can't really find anything relevant. As it currently stands borrowing can be one-to-one: 1 customer borrows money from 1 bank. And can be one-to-many: 1 ...
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On a Dalio youtube video

The following video https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PHe0bXAIuk0 argues that credit is the principal force behind the business cycle. Is this considered to be a established truth within some school ...
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Do the republican tax cuts cost more than forgiving student loan debt?

It is alleged by this article in the Guardian that the republican tax cuts cost more money than the total student loan debt bubble. The accuracy of this claim was briefly discussed in this post via ...
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why is it always said that a CAD must be financed by borrowing from foreign countries

a current account deficit (CAD) means you have money leaking out of your country and going to ROW (rest of world). i see here (https://www.imf.org/external/region/tlm/rr/pdf/fpp5.pdf) that it can be '...
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How to calculate indentical cash flows?

So i have this question: Homemade leverage Companies A and B differ only in their capital structure. A is financed 30% debt and 70% equity; B is financed 10% debt and 90% equity. The debt of both ...
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How to calculate the after tax WACC

So i have this question: Assume the following data for U&P Company: Debt (D) = $100 million; Equity (E) =$300 million; rD = 6%; rE = 12%; and TC = 30%. Calculate the after-tax weighted average ...
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How did the UK become so indebted?

In 2011, household, financial, and business debts stood at 420% of GDP in the UK. This doesn't sound like a very good state of affairs (am I wrong?). If this is a negative state of affairs how did ...
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Is it possible to repay the world debt? If not, why do we care?

First of all, let me apologize if the coming questions may sound stupid to expert. I am no expert in economics, I have no training nor I have followed any traditional curse. I am just curious (and ...
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What country has the highest requirements for loans?

I was looking to find countries with the toughest regulations on loans(general loans not any specific ones) By that I mean: I mainly care to know where it is toughest for people to get a loan from a ...
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What is the opposite of debt?

In trade, the opposite of trade deficit is trade surplus. In other words, the negative deficit is called surplus. And then, what is the term for negative debt? Say for example Bank A owes 5 million ...
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Australia and Saudi Arabia - Structural Similarities

I refer specifically to this article in which Andrew Critchlow paints a pretty dire view of the Australian economy. The line which challenged my priors was: ...
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Is it possible to eliminate the U.S. national debt?

A political science teacher of mine has said that the U.S. national debt has grown way beyond reach and is now just a political talking point with no real value. He says that there is no point in ...
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Is it possible to pay the internal debt of the country and to cover the budget deficit by increasing taxes?

Say for example the US govt. is putting an extra tax of 10% on the incomes of the people earning more than the average income. To make it easier, only tax the people earning more than 110% of the ...
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What's the term for the debt you have to pay today?

Say that a company has a debt of 10 million $US But from that debt, the company has to pay 2 million $US today. The rest of the debt has to be payed next year and later. Is there a term for the debt ...
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Calculating the weighted average cost of capital

Question : Provided that interest on debt is 12%, dividend to share holders are 15%. Calculate the weighted average cost of capital if debt is 70% and equity is 30%. Given, tax rate is 20%. I know, ...
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Why bonds held by foreign investors is greater than total bond issued?

Total bond issued is reported by BIS debt securities data. Let BIS denote this amount. Bonds held by foreign investors is reported by Balance of payment statistics (IMF). It is the portfolio debt ...
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is there a way in NIPA accounts to see a measure of size/change in private debt stock?

is there a way in NIPA accounts to see a measure of size/change in private debt stock , and how is it measured? if not then how is it measured?
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Is Debt Monetization Equivalent to transferring money from rich to poor?

I'm reading Ray Dalio's "How the Economic Machine Works", and he says that there are four factors contributing to deleveragings in economies: 1) Debt Reduction 2) Austerity 3) Transferring wealth ...
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Syndicated Loans Terminology - Borrower & Sponsor

I am trying to understand what is the difference between the Borrower and the Sponsor entities in a syndicate loan agreement. Namely, it looks like quite often, the Borrower entity will be a Company ...
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Why do bonds pay back the entire principal at maturity instead of paying it off gradually?

Bonds usually pay interest only and the entire principal is paid back at maturity. On the other hand fixed rate retail loans pay back both interest and principal such that at the end no debt is ...
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falling household savings

While reading Mazzucato's "The value of everything", I come across this The rise in private debt in the US and UK has resulted in household savings falling as a percentage of disposable income - ...
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What is consumer debt and how could it make businesses vulnerable?

Consumer debt is the obligation to pay for the credit that the customers have used. But, how can tapping out more credits make business more vulnerable?
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Who owns state bonds?

Let's take as an example the province of Quebec in Canada with a debt of $273B. It just elected a conservative and nationalistic government to lead the next 4 years. Their platform is that of fiscal ...
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Who owns German debt?

I know that Germany has huge external debt. I don't know how to find out which entities own this and especially which country they belong to.
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How can countries be in so much debt?

You regularly hear in the media how countries are billions or even trillions of US dollars in debt. How does a country get so far in debt, and who is it in debt to? How can countries of the world ...
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When Does a Country's External Debt Become a Problem?

Here in the UK, the external debt is currently over 300% of GDP. To me this looks very worrying, using my basic financial logic, it seems like this debt will only go up (because of interest combined ...
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Explain some All countries excluding residents in BIS Debt Securities Data

In the BIS Debt Securities statistics: In both column "issueresidence" and column "issuenationality" there is a category called "All countries excluding residents". I do not understand what it means. ...
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Has the world become poorer?

This question is not backed by serious economic research but mainly by a very simple attempt to look at how the world economy has changed. I am asking whether and why the world has, over the past 50 ...
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Differences between international and national creditors

When considering a nations debt, how does it affect the nation whether its debt is held by national or international creditors? If there is preference does this translate into different prices for the ...
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Relation between growth rate of GDP and real interest rate for sustainable debt-to-GDP ratio

Why is the relation between the growth rate of GDP and the real interest rate important for sustaining the government the debt-to-GDP ratio ?
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Why, in such a debt-heavy era, is inflation still such a Bad Thing(TM)?

Going through the Wikipedia article on inflation, a number of pros and cons to inflation are covered. Most of the "cons" of inflation (cost-push inflation, hoarding, hyperinflation, diminished ...
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Can a currency crisis be the proximate cause of a debt crisis?

I'm just curious whether there are any historical examples of a currency crisis in a country (speculative attacks leading causing a sudden devaluation of currency) leading directly to a debt crisis?
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Debt bearing capacity

In times of low yields and the prospect of rising yields, I asked myself if the european countries can ceteris-paribus cope with rising yields. Is there a way to calculate the effect of rising yields (...
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Why shouldn't governments use Forex reserve to pay their debts?

India has around 470 billion USD in debt and has around 400 billion USD in forex reserves. So why should India or any other nations shouldn't use their forex reserves to pay off their external debt ?