Questions tagged [debt]

An obligation to pay another party at some point in the future. Examples include national debt, corporate bonds, and household credit.

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555 views

Why do bonds pay back the entire principal at maturity instead of paying it off gradually?

Bonds usually pay interest only and the entire principal is paid back at maturity. On the other hand fixed rate retail loans pay back both interest and principal such that at the end no debt is ...
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416 views

If banks create money by lending it out, how are they taking any risk?

When I lend money to someone and they don't pay it back, I lose my money. I can only lend out money that I own (or borrow). I understand that when a bank lends money, that money is created the ...
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58 views

Is there unnecessary duplication for borrowing in this circular flow of income diagram?

Here is a circular flow of income that I took from Krugman's macroenomics textbook. We can see that when firms want to borrow they can go to the financial sector and borrow savings of national and ...
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787 views

What is the difference betwene a partial default and having debts partially written off?

From The Daily Telegraph: The new Syriza-led government has demanded some form debt write-off on the country's €317bn liabilities, two-thirds of which are owned to official creditors in the form of ...
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Are there any Sovereign Debt Guarantees, apart from those issued by the US?

The US has been undertaking an irregular form of foreign aid, Sovereign Bond Guarantees, which entails guaranteeing some of the public debt of their allies, source here: https://www.cgdev.org/blog/...
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How to find US total debt?

Sorry i'm not really an economist but I don't know where else to ask. I'm reading Ray Dalio's Big Debt Crises and he has several graphs for total US debt burdens https://imgur.com/a/tPX3LuH where it's ...
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91 views

How can a sovereign debt ratio be high, but debt-servicing ratio be low?

I'm quoting this May 22 2020 interview with NYU Stern Prof. Nouriel Roubini. In other words, you’re saying that because of structural weaknesses in the economy, even modest inflation would be crisis-...
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How did the UK become so indebted?

In 2011, household, financial, and business debts stood at 420% of GDP in the UK. This doesn't sound like a very good state of affairs (am I wrong?). If this is a negative state of affairs how did ...
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Do institutions buy debt with credit?

I am reading Money Power book, from 1932 (http://www.worldcat.org/title/money-power-and-human-life/oclc/3783026). The author explains how the War Loans in the UK worked. He says that the government ...
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72 views

What determines the rate of interest on national debt for a country?

From what I understand of Canada's rate of interest on the debt, after Pierre Trudeau, it was around 17.4%, after Mulroney, it was around 7%, and after Harper it was around 5.2%. Finding these ...
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Macroeconomics and equilibrium

Preliminary note: I have nearly zero economical background, I am a physicist and my question is probably very naive, but I would like a clear and simple explanation. If I am not wrong, the global ...
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1answer
113 views

Government spending/borrowing difference/ national debt increase disparity

My background in economics is non-existant, I'm just doing some research before the UK general elections and am having some difficulty in understanding certain data. Assuming the figures found in ...
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1answer
25 views

Financial manipulation and Inflation as tools for sovereign debt default

In the book This Time Is Different, by Reinhart and Rogoff, in chapter 8, the authors state that Higher minimum level of reserves (?) And/or upper bound/ceiling to interest rates ( will help increase ...
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42 views

Does the government ever pay back its debt from the OMO to the Fed? [closed]

I'm getting confused about how exactly does money being created by the Fed. From investopidia.com: ...
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95 views

How can countries be in so much debt?

You regularly hear in the media how countries are billions or even trillions of US dollars in debt. How does a country get so far in debt, and who is it in debt to? How can countries of the world ...
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74 views

Is Debt Monetization Equivalent to transferring money from rich to poor?

I'm reading Ray Dalio's "How the Economic Machine Works", and he says that there are four factors contributing to deleveragings in economies: 1) Debt Reduction 2) Austerity 3) Transferring wealth ...
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47 views

Purchase of the public debts by the ECB

In France, one of the presidential candidate said that the European Central Bank should purchase the public debts of the country and transform it into a perpetual debt (this is a literal translation, ...
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Is there a reliable estimate of what proportion of adults in a country are in debt at a given time?

Is there a reliable estimate of what proportion of adults in a given country are in debt at a given time? With "debt" covering student debt, debt secured by mortgages on property, credit card debt, ...
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GDP and DEBT/GDP ratio of a Nation [closed]

Imagine following tiny nation. It consist only of 100 people running a car manufacturing plant. The nation imports every resource it needs for manufacturing those cars. It also imports all energy, ...
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A bank approves a loan: where does the money come from?

In the naïve picture of the banking system, banks strike a balance between savings invested in them by savers and the loans requested of them by borrowers. The money loaned to borrowers is the same ...
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What will happen to bank loans in the event of hyper inflation?

Say for example a person gets a home loan of $100,000 in a certain country at an interest rate of 10%. Inflation is normally around 5% in this country. What could happen to that person's loan if the ...
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822 views

Why do wars increase the public debts?

This should be a very simple question for most of you, but I can't seem to get an answer so I decided to ask the question here. So please be as simple as possible and excuse my ignorance. This is a ...
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53 views

What would happen if the U.S. “refinanced” its national debt?

Interest rates are at historical lows. I believe they went negative in parts of Europe recently. Since interest on the national debt is one of the biggest, if not the biggest, expense item of the U.S. ...
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133 views

Why does the United States' national debt matter?

This might sound like a naive question, but I mean it quite honestly (please be aware that I am merely a high school student): Why does the United States' government debt matter? To be sure, based on ...
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51 views

How could DTI(debt-to-income ratio) go well above 1?

IMF Working Paper No. 19/258: Assessing Macro-Financial Risks of Household Debt in China (PDF version) The riskiness of household debt increased as well: between 2010 and 2016, the share of debt held ...
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51 views

Why debt/equity ratio is limited to between 0 and 9

Is there any economic reason that debt/equity is limited to between 0 and 9 as in the picture below? This research examines the impact of the law on firms' financial flexibilities.
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Why did Germany use hyperinflation to free itself from an external debt?

Im reading about how Germany used almost any solution To free itself from its WWI debt: hyperinflation, calculating payments on the basis of the economy's potential, rescheduling annuities and finally ...
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47 views

Which is safer in the long-term, diffuse debt or concentrated debt?

I want to deepen my understanding of risks as posed by debt burdens among actors of an economy. After some literature review, it seems the matter is nuanced; points can be made for both sides. I'll ...
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179 views

Banks are allowed to print money out of thin air. Black magic or what? [duplicate]

Today it is wide spread notion that the commercial banks cat create a money out of thin air. Simply by typing numbers on computer. Every time a bank gives a load to a borrower, the loan money do not ...
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39 views

Why shouldn't governments use Forex reserve to pay their debts?

India has around 470 billion USD in debt and has around 400 billion USD in forex reserves. So why should India or any other nations shouldn't use their forex reserves to pay off their external debt ?
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What does it mean to say that deficits are financed by debt issue?

Let $B_t$ be real net government debt, let $G_t$ be public spending, let $T$ be net tax revenue (i.e, tax income minus transfers), and ignore everything else. One can show, $$B_{t+1} = (1+r)B_t + G - ...
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What happens to an MBS if all the underlying mortgages are fully paid back by the borrowers much before the maturity date?

What would happen to an MBS (mortgage-backed security) if hypothetically speaking all the underlying mortgages were fully paid back by the mortgagees (borrowers), much before the maturity date? I ...
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35 views

How does QE effect the collaterals?

For instance, the ECB accepts green bonds as collateral. And also they are more likely to include green bonds in a QE program. Does this face make a green bond more valuable? How would it work in a ...
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39 views

Do the republican tax cuts cost more than forgiving student loan debt?

It is alleged by this article in the Guardian that the republican tax cuts cost more money than the total student loan debt bubble. The accuracy of this claim was briefly discussed in this post via ...
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106 views

Contribution by each factor

Must admit it has been many years since I have done advanced calculations or anything remotely like it, so please bear with me. I have problem that I hope to get some help with. Say I have below ...
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57 views

What is consumer debt and how could it make businesses vulnerable?

Consumer debt is the obligation to pay for the credit that the customers have used. But, how can tapping out more credits make business more vulnerable?
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How have central banks been injecting currency after crises since 2007?

In an article by Jean-Michel Naulot about the 2007–2008 financial crisis, I read (my translation): Although central banks had an exemplary reaction at the time of the [2007–2008] crisis, they ...
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Converting per capita growth rates for subgroups into contribution to total per capita growth rate

You are given total debt for the second quarter of 2003 and the second quarter of 2004 for the overall population and four age groups. The four age groups collectively account for the entire ...
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1k views

How much leverage has the Federal Reserve taken on today (Jan 2016)?

http://nymag.com/daily/intelligencer/2015/12/big-short-genius-says-another-crisis-is-coming.html?mid=twitter-share-di What makes you most nervous about the future? Debt. The idea that growth will ...
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1answer
31 views

Why monthly present in on line monthly payment calculator calculates as annual percent divided by 12?

Why monthly present in on line monthly payment calculator calculated as annual percent divided by 12? I think it's wrong, it should be exponential. For instance annual percent 4%. To calculate monthly ...
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77 views

Current Account vs Net Exports

In Mian, Sufi and Verner (2017), the authors look at the impact of an increase in household debt on both net exports and the current account, and find a significant negative coefficient in the ...
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24 views

Possible “debt-to-…” ratio indicators for debt-to-economic growth relationship?

Suppose we are interested in the relationship between public or external debt and economic growth. One can look at the debt-to-GDP ratio or debt-to-export ratio. What may be other possible "debt-...
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23 views

Value flow in economy - redefinition credit and money?

There are voices that there are already too much debt in the world (government, personal, government debt) and that can be the cause of the crisis. From the other hand the the only solution offered by ...
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76 views

Is it possible to pay the internal debt of the country and to cover the budget deficit by increasing taxes?

Say for example the US govt. is putting an extra tax of 10% on the incomes of the people earning more than the average income. To make it easier, only tax the people earning more than 110% of the ...
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39 views

falling household savings

While reading Mazzucato's "The value of everything", I come across this The rise in private debt in the US and UK has resulted in household savings falling as a percentage of disposable income - ...
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58 views

Who owns state bonds?

Let's take as an example the province of Quebec in Canada with a debt of $273B. It just elected a conservative and nationalistic government to lead the next 4 years. Their platform is that of fiscal ...
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Public debt and GDP in post-socialistic countries

Why is public debt in % of GDP in post-socialistic countries of Eastern Europe is less than in countries of Western Europe. Some arguments, opinions or articles?
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855 views

What does DOD stand for in this indicator?

I was looking at the indicator External debt stocks, total (DOD, current US$) on the worldbank website and I don't understand what DOD stands for.
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confusion regarding debt and debit [closed]

According to it's etymology, the term debit comes from the word debt, which means "the state of owing money.". Among other meanings, liability is a contractual obligation to deliver cash ...
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External/Internal debt

https://www.bis.org/publ/work550.pdf page 7 extract "Third, the distinction between external and internal debt is important. External debt, long seen as a key driver of financial crises in EMEs (...