Questions tagged [exchange-rates]

the price at which one currency may be exchanged for another.

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15 views

echange rate from LOC/EUR to EUR

I have import values in LOCEUR (LOC is local currency). How can I obtain these values only in EUR? My data are from Eurostat, where external trade indicator is "Exports in million of ECU/EURO"
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30 views

Meaning of Exchange rate

Does exchange rate of local currency relative to US dollar mean LOC/USD or USD/LOC ?
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3answers
80 views

How long can I live in the United States with my German monthly income?

I see different (more or less abstract resp. specific) approaches to compare wealth (of individuals, regions, and countries): by living standards by living expenses by incomes/salaries by purchasing ...
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21 views

How to calculate PPP$ from LCUs?

Is there one single formula which allows to calculate the income of a person in PPP\$ from her income in LCUs (local currency units), given for example the PPP conversion factor, GDP (LCU per ...
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18 views

Meaning of PPP conversion factors

How do I interpret the numbers of this table PPP conversion factor, GDP (LCU per international $) as published by the World Bank: First of all, it's just numbers, but what do they tell (in common ...
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37 views

Purchasing Power Parity and Baskets of Goods

On the exact definition and understanding of "purchasing power parity" it depends what it means when the World Bank defines the “extremely poor” people of the world as those who are currently ...
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31 views

What strategies can the president employ to deflate the dollar

United States president Donald Trump has publicly declared a desire to deflate the value of the dollar. I have read in news reports that he has asked aids to find ways to decrease the dollar's ...
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1answer
118 views

Bretton Woods vs Gold Standard

I've been reading about the history of the IMF recently, and it strikes me as odd that despite the problems that arose with the gold standard (Germany in the 1920s, Fed cutting money supply during the ...
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1answer
23 views

Local vs. foreign currency denomination for Emerging Market Bonds

For emerging market governments, why is it safer to issue bonds in local currencies than in foreign currencies to raise money? Given that both are invested in by foreign investors, couldn't both ...
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1answer
40 views

How does interest rate impact exchange rate?

When I’m using the forward exchange rate formula based on non-arbitrage theory, it tells me that a positive interest rate spread (i_domestic > i_foreign)would cause the forward exchange rate(units of ...
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22 views

What is the difference between conditional and unconditional risk premia?

This is an asset pricing question. What is the difference between conditional and unconditional risk premia? Here's the context: The fact that carry trade strategies typically earn positive average ...
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11 views

What counts as a “dollar shortage” and how do we know which countries have one?

I recently read an article claiming that China is worried about a possible "dollar shortage," which is news to me. When does this happen, has it happened before, and how do we know which countries ...
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How the Balassa-Samuelson affect real exchange rate?

According to standard Balassa-Samuelson effect, when the productivity increases in the tradable sector (GDP), price increase can be observed in non-tradable sector and this can lead to appreciation of ...
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Is the mid-market currency exchange rate something real? Or are bid and ask rates the real rates?

Reading from this and other sources, it appears to me that there are three different ratios between any two currencies, namely the bid rate the ask rate the real rate My understaning is that the two ...
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Why would QE tapering depreciate a foreign, volatile currency?

I'm busy reading the overview in The Oxford Companion to the Economics of South Africa (written in 2014), and on page 11 it says The rand is expected to remain volatile and face depreciation risk ...
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1answer
85 views

Facebook's Libra - Why would it vary in value

Facebook has come up Libra its version of crypto-currency. The unique feature of Libra is the "reserve" which backs Libra. The reserve is supposed to be held in stable global currencies (USD, GBP, ...
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Uncovered Interest Rate Parity Assumptions (UIRP)

When learning about UIRP i have naturally come across the assumptions under which it may hold. However i am having trouble understanding the role of these assumptions and what the actual consequences ...
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Exchange rate target zone 45 degree line in the free float case - Krugman Target Zones

As far as i understand in the Krugman target zone model the following equation describes the behaviour of the exchange rate within and outside a target zone $s_t = f_t + \alpha E_t(ds_t/dt)$. But if ...
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186 views

What negative effects would result from globally fixing currency exchange rates?

Assuming one had the power to enact such a wide-ranging change, what would the negative effects of fixing the exchange rates between all currencies at the current rates, or the mean of the last week/...
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Questions about the gold standard and exchange rates

So I'm a total economics noob and I'm trying to understand some of the consequences of using vs. not using a gold standard listed on Brad DeLong's blog here: https://www.bradford-delong.com/why-not-...
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In an unsterilized purchase of dollars and sale of foreign assets, why doesn't the supply of dollar assets fall?

From Mishkin (2016, p. 500): Explanation of what the supply curve here is, from p. 478: The quantity of dollar assets supplied is primarily the quantity of bank deposits, bonds, and equities in ...
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11 views

Nominal GDP to Current purchasing power parity

Hi I would like to convert nominal GDP in current US dollars to current purchasing power parity in 2011 US dollars. Is this nominal GDP already converted? if GDP were in LCU I would convert it to ...
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A quick math question for NX curve

My text book says as if this $NX$ and $S-I$ graph can explain everything, like even when the economy experiences trade deficit. But shouldn't $S-I$ be a minus value when it's in a deficit? Then how ...
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Deficit adjustment - role of exchange rates

Krugman states the following: Suppose the world economy is in equilibrium. Suddenly the dollar depreciates for some reason. Almost all economists would agree that long run effect would be some ...
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Investor sentiments in large open economy under Mundell Fleming Model

So I have been studying the Mundell Fleming Model, I fail to understand the impact of investment sentiments in a large open economy. This is what I think : Positive investment sentiments will ...
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1answer
116 views

Balance of payments and the free floating exchange rate system

I am a beginner economics student and recently, I have been learning about how balance of payments surpluses are important for a country to control the value of its currency using its accumulated ...
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1answer
119 views

Why a current account surplus is bond to lead to an appreciation of a currency?

I have got some confusion in trying to explain why a trade surplus is going to lead to an increase in the exchange rate. The usual logic goes as follows. Export X > Import M Demand for the country's ...
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1answer
27 views

Does a strong exchange rate always mean a cheap holiday regardless of where you are from and going?

As question title states, does going from one country with a much stronger exchange rate, or a moderately higher exchange rate, in comparison to a country you visit always mean you get more bang for ...
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39 views

why doesn't every country scale up the prices to the international level?

I live in an Asian country in which the average monthly salary is maybe 300-400 dollars but things (apart from exported goods like laptops or smartphones) are reasonably cheap compared to their price ...
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2answers
49 views

Question about maintaining fixed exchange rates

In my textbook, borrowing from abroad is listed as one of the method to increase the value of a currency by shifting its demand curve to the right. "If the country borrows from abroad, its loans ...
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14 views

Two deflator series with different base year to proxy real exchange rate

I'm conducting a research in which the real exchange rate serves as a variable. A quick literature review shows that we can use the product of the nominal exchange rate and the ratio between the US ...
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90 views

What does an increase in REER signify?

What does an increase in the real effective exchange rate signify? I read from a news report that (localized for India): Furthermore, REER is calculated in such a way that an increase in its ...
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gdp growth outliers reflect exchange rate variations

I have nominal GDP for 20 countries and I need it in dollars. I noticed that some observations like Belgium 1986 are havily influenced by exchange rate variations so that we have real GDP growth of 45%...
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The Crisis of Argentina

newbie here. Q1 - What needs to be done by the Argentinian government for their currency to regain back its strength? Q2 - Why has the Argentine Peso depreciated against the U.S Dollar for more than ...
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How to convert an historic value denoted in foreign currency to a modern value in local currency?

I want to convert GBP in 1968 to USD in 2018, in order to "translate" an amount paid by an individual in Britain fifty years ago. My intention is that an American reader today will be able to better ...
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Exposure of two companies in a transaction involving an FX option

An American company $A$ has sold a manufactured product to a German company $B$, and they agree for the payment of 100,000 EUR in 1 year. What type of exposure does $B$ have? What type of exposure ...
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1answer
43 views

Justification for my Random Effects estimation

I need to defend my use of the Random Effects (RE) estimator in my economics project. I've been told in cross validated that the proper place for the question is here. The causal effect of the ...
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2answers
33 views

Theory of Optimal Currency Areas

Should a country be more inclined or less inclined to join a currency union (common currency) under the following events: a) Increase in the size and frequency of AD shocks to the economy. b)...
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1answer
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Real exchange rate

I have a doubt: I'm studying about real exchange rates and I'm having some problem with the formula. RER= NER* price ratio What I don't understand is how do you take this price ratio? Which price ...
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2answers
53 views

Exchange Rate Determination

Most introductory international economics textbooks use the Uncovered Interest Rate Parity condition for deriving bilateral exchange rates. In other words, it is solely interest rate differential ...
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103 views

J Curve and DD Schedule in the Short Run (International Finance)

Assume that the J-curve is true. What would the DD curve look like during the early period of the J-curve (where the value effect dominates)? What would the effect of temporary changes in monetary ...
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How does imposing 100 percent cash margin requirement on imports help to stabilize foreign exchange reserves of a country?

My country is facing a critical depreciation of its currency's exchange rate and the central bank has introduced a 100 percent cash margin requirement on a selected set of imports. My main problem is ...
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2k views

real exchange rate appreciation

i find the topic of real exchange rate appreciation / depreciation often not very well explained. even the excerpt below from the following accepted answer on this website is not correct in my ...
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1answer
50 views

What could happen if a country changes their currency rate constantly?

Introduction Imagine this random country. "Yolistan", it is a new country that appeared after a war/revolution/independence/whatever. The currency it's the "Yolo" Yolistan needs to import resources ...
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Emerging Market dollar debt, FX swaps and exchange rate risks

"An FX swap, on the other hand, creates no exchange rate risk for its counterparties. This is because currencies are sold and repurchase at fixed spot and forward rates. In other words, when you sell ...
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What is the reason of devaluation in Turkish Lira?

I guess there is a some fundamental issues in the economy but I wonder the apparent reason of the recent devaluation in Turkish Lira? Does Turkey need to pay debt in very short term? How much is it? ...
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Dornbush model - relationship between i and S

In the Dornbush model, when we separate short and long run equilibrium. This is what I apparently have understood: SR1: an increase in Money Supply ($M_s$) leads to a fall in domestic interest rates (...
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Mechanics of Sterilized Intervention?

I'm looking to see if someone can help improve my understanding of sterilized intervention in FX markets. My intuition/understanding is: Assume that the domestic currency is depreciating, perhaps ...
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1answer
212 views

Can increase of NEER cause higher inflation?

I´m trying to find siutable econometrics model for explaining inflation during financial crisis and after. My final model shows that if NEERnominal effective exchange rate) increases, the inflation ...
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Is there a quantitative model demonstrating the relationship between balance of payments and exchange rate?

According to conventional analysis, a key factor in exchange rate determination is the state of the balance of payments. An increase in imports gives rise to an increase in a demand for foreign ...