Questions tagged [exchange-rates]

the price at which one currency may be exchanged for another.

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0answers
32 views

Dornbush model - relationship between i and S

In the Dornbush model, when we separate short and long run equilibrium. This is what I apparently have understood: SR1: an increase in Money Supply ($M_s$) leads to a fall in domestic interest rates (...
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Mechanics of Sterilized Intervention?

I'm looking to see if someone can help improve my understanding of sterilized intervention in FX markets. My intuition/understanding is: Assume that the domestic currency is depreciating, perhaps ...
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1answer
215 views

Can increase of NEER cause higher inflation?

I´m trying to find siutable econometrics model for explaining inflation during financial crisis and after. My final model shows that if NEERnominal effective exchange rate) increases, the inflation ...
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30 views

Is there a quantitative model demonstrating the relationship between balance of payments and exchange rate?

According to conventional analysis, a key factor in exchange rate determination is the state of the balance of payments. An increase in imports gives rise to an increase in a demand for foreign ...
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1answer
29 views

Normalise historic values given in different currencies

I have historic monetary values given in different currencies and stemming from different points in time. I want to be able to compare them, and for that all must be given in the same currency, and ...
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1answer
33 views

Real exchange rate of India and United State?

According to OECD the price level of India is 29, and that of united states is 113, and nominal exchange rate is 64-1(INR-$). So what is the real exchange rate? Is it $$RER = NER\times\frac{US_{...
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2k views

How is it possible that all currency exchange rates are fixed w.r.t. to each other?

I wondered if it would be beneficial to exchange a currency through one or more "in-between" currencies. For example: instead of trading Russian Ruble (RUB) to Euro's (EUR), one would trade from RUB ...
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2answers
209 views

Dornbusch Sticky Price (Overshooting) model

Stupid question: What do the phi and lambda from the equations above represent?
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3answers
126 views

Theoretical market capitalisation of a crypto currency?

Here’s the context. I want to know what the theoretical market capitalisation (say eg $US / Bitcoin times Q the number of coins - it doesn’t have to be Bitcoin) of a crypto currency? Assume that the ...
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2answers
3k views

Who determines the exchange rate and how?

I have almost no knowledge about economics. However, a question always comes in my mind. How exchange rate really differ? I live in Bangladesh. So how, why, who changing BDT and US Dollar exchange ...
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78 views

National Capital Outflow Question

I have the following example for an imposed quota on the importing of Japanese cars to Europe and it's relative effects: I am told that $NX=NCO$ (Net exports are equal to National Capital Outflow). I ...
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1answer
135 views

Solutions for the de-dollarization of the Democratic Republic of Congo

While reading this article, I was wondering about the policies the DRC's government could employ to make the congolese franc appreciate. To appreciate the currency, the DRC by decreased investment in ...
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160 views

Under what conditions are tariffs or export subsidies expansionary?

Charles Kindleberger writes in the introduction to /The World in Depression/: The imposition of tariffs should be expansionary for the importing country, if contractive for the countries losing ...
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2answers
979 views

Data on bilateral real exchange rate

Where can I find bilateral real exchange rates? For example per USD? I can only find real effective exchange rates, but it is an index, not a bilateral rate.
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1answer
137 views

Norway inflation and exchange rates

I am looking at Norway's economy, and I'm trying to make sense of some of the data I see. Norway's economy has a very close relationship to crude oil, and in 2014 crude oil had a massive drop. Looking ...
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1answer
312 views

How can the HKMA peg the Hong Kong dollar at 7.8 HKD/USD for so long?

A lot of pegged exchange rate systems don't stay pegged for so long (e.g. because the central bank run out of reserves to maintain their values) So far I understand that the HKD is 100% backed by the ...
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3answers
81 views

How to estimate long term exchange rate?

I'am looking for a book or paper that explain (in a theoretical and empirical way) how to estimate the long-run exchange rate for a country. Could someone suggest me one?
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4answers
101 views

In this 3-way currency exchange, who loses, and by how much?

Let's say, hypothetically, we have the following imbalanced exchange rates: 1USD = 1.2EUR 1.2EUR = 1000 JPY 1000 JPY = 1.5 USD Let's say person A starts off with 1 USD, buys 1.2 EUR from B, then ...
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1answer
154 views

Why imports increase if higher relative inflation?

I'm reviewing a previous AP Macroeconomics exam and I saw the following question: The United States and South Korea are trading partners, and the United States has a zero current account balance. ...
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1answer
58 views

Is there an accepted metric for “the value of the dollar”?

Is there a reasonably well-established scheme for estimating the value of the dollar in international trade, somehow relating it to the "average" of other currencies or to some currency-independent ...
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1answer
449 views

Real Exchange Rates calculation

I am struggling with something as simple as real exchange rate calculation! I get the theory: RER = NOM * (P*/P) i.e. nominal exchange rate times price level ratios. Apparently, using CPI (consumer ...
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Can one calculate how much increasing the US federal debt affects the “value” of the dollar?

As I understand it, if the US government runs a deficit then it (for the most part) "pays" for that deficit by "selling" government bonds. This tends to drive up interest rates somewhat, but also, ...
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93 views

VAR/VECM Fitted/Predicted values (BEER model)

I am running a BEER model (Behavioral Equilibrium Exchange Rate Model) and using VAR/VECM and Johansen method to estimate the equation. For context, I am looking at the XR of Czech crown and the euro. ...
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Why should UIP hold?

I am aware of the details of Uncovered Interest Parity, namely that the expected depreciation of a currency vs another one should equal the interest rate differential. I am also aware that empirically ...
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What could cause the spike in the Venezuelan unofficial currency exchange?

In November last year the unofficial currency exchange rate in Venezuela skyrocketed. It was only one month later that the government was able to slow the increase rate to “normal” values. The ...
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1answer
12k views

Do import tariffs tend to increase a country's exchange rate (if so, why)?

From Prof. Stiglitz' Vanity Fair article: How, one might ask, is this possible, given Trump’s rhetoric, his determination to move against China with a 45 percent tariff? There’s a global ...
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1answer
794 views

How should I adjust data for both inflation and foreign exchange rate?

I’m not sure if this is typically done, but suppose my data point is in 2013 JPY and I want to express in 2016 USD. Do I apply CPI to express data in 2016 JPY, and then apply exchange rate to 2016 USD?...
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1answer
135 views

What is the proof for why border adjustments are exactly offset in theory by currency appreciation?

Why is it true, in theory, that border adjustments are exactly offset by currency appreciation? I've read the colloquial explanations online, but am looking for something more rigorous. For example, ...
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2answers
3k views

Is there a difference between buying a currency and selling the currency to be converted to?

I'm not an economist. I'm looking to exchange my CAD to EUR. I watched the rates on a exchange office, and I found something strange: ...
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1answer
42 views

Do the stock performances of various companies have a measurable correlation with exchange rate?

For example if the values of big companies in a country decrease, will the value of that country's currency measurably decrease?
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28 views

Relationship between changes in Currency against basket of currencies and inflation

Sorry I'm not an economist, but I was wondering if there was a general country by country guide to how inflation there changes with response to a change in the currency's value against a basket of ...
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2answers
478 views

Interest Rate Differential and Fisher's Interest Rate Parity

The Fisher formula for interest rate parity, as explained here shows that for a given currency pair, the currency with the higher interest rate will depreciate relative to the the currency with the ...
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1answer
77 views

Did the dollar depreciate when Trump won the election?

I expected the the dollar to briefly depreciate against all currencies when Trump won the election (in 2016), but I have just learned that it briefly appreciated against some. It depreciated against ...
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1answer
1k views

What exactly is the difference between the PPP (“purchasing power parity”) and LOOP (“law of one price”)?

For PPP & LOOP: e = EP/P* = 1 So both are valid if goods in the US and EU cost the same in $ for example. But then, what exactly is the difference between both?
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Who loses/wins in exchange rate fluctuations?

I recently joined Amazon prime unknowingly and USD99 was debited on my non-USA credit card for an annual membership. I canceled the membership and was refunded USD99 after two days. Due to exchange ...
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1answer
45 views

The effects of Quantative Easing (QE) on FX rates?

What are the effects of quantitative easing on the foreign exchange rates? If the central bank starts buying debt denominated in domestic currency, I would think that the market would be flooded ...
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1answer
35 views

Renminbi demand and CNY rates

I read something similar to here, http://www.businessinsider.com/onshore-and-offshore-renminbi-2014-2?IR=T, paragraph 6, that demand for renminbi drives down cny bond market? I can understand how ...
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1answer
435 views

Short term and long term price elasticity of currencies

If I have 1% of the world supply of US dollars, and I decide to sell all of them to buy Euros, how much should I expect the exchange rate to change? Is there some kind of empirically determined price ...
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2answers
59 views

How could having more US dollars solidified the 1991 Argentine peg to the US dollar?

In an economics textbook, Modern Principles of Economics, the authors, Tyler Cowen and Alex Tabarrok, write that "The Argentine government did not have enough U.S. dollars to keep up the value of the ...
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1answer
98 views

Currency triplets - arbitrage opportunity?

I have three currency pairs - USDEUR - 0.88, USDINR - 67.13 and EURINR - 75.88 , so simple math tells me that EURINR should be USDINR/USDEUR = 76.28 ...this is a fairly significant deviation from an ...
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3answers
17k views

What is the relationship between inflation and imports/exports?

According to the aggregate demand curve, when the price level is higher, the real GDP demanded is lower. One of the explanations given is a consequence of the Mundell-Fleming model: "As the price ...
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1answer
393 views

USD/CAD fx: What's the difference between Buying USD and Selling CAD?

Beginner question here. I'm Canadian, and my investement account is, by default, in CAD currency. Recently I wanted by buy a US stock so I had to convert some of my CAD money in USD money. There ...
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42 views

Adjusting reported costs figures

What would be the correct procedure to adjust costs figures to make them comparable? For example, I find two papers that report the cost of similar pesticides in a developing country. One reports ...
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1answer
39 views

What does long-run level mean for exchange rate

I am reading a paper by the economist Dornbusch. It says that exchange rate will converge to its long-run level. The rate appreciate if prices are initially below their long-run level, and, conversely,...
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3answers
409 views

Is there a good way of assessing an estimated absolute value of a currency?

If we want to figure out the strength of a currency relative to another currency, we look at the exchange rate between the two. However, I'm wondering what is the most accurate way of assessing the ...
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1answer
144 views

Venezuelan black market exchange

EDIT: for future reference, I found out that many businesses price accordingly to the black market rate. Trading at the official Venezuelan exchange rate is, at time of writing, about 1:10 USD:VEF. ...
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1answer
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If I make an international purchase with a card which contains domestic currency, is this currency converted to the currency of the seller? [closed]

Let's say that I buy an app from the Play store. The seller quotes in Dollars, and I pay in Rupees (INR) --how does this transaction happen? Is my ₹ converted into $? Does this transaction also ...
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3answers
427 views

Questions on comparing GDP between various countries

What is the difference between OER vs PPP? What fundamentally drives them? Shouldnt an arb opportunity exist and wouldnt that difference then go away? My understanding of OER is the official nominal ...
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323 views

Finding an exchange rate and competitive equilibrium given an initial allocation and utility function [closed]

I am attempting to solve the following question. "Smith and Jones are stranded on a desert island. Each has in his possession some slices of ham (H) and cheese (C). Smith is a choosy eater and will ...
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1answer
52 views

Which currency is preferred when countries with different currencies purchase imports/sell exports?

For example, when a company in the United States sells goods to a company or distributor in China, does the U.S. company accept payment in yuan (which it then exchanges for dollars on the currency ...