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Questions tagged [finance]

Finance describes the management, creation and study of money, banking, credit, investments, assets and liabilities that make up financial systems, as well as the study of those financial instruments.

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20 views

Financial Economics and Corporate Finance

In pg 4 of Principles of Corporate finance (Allen et al, 2017), in the context of explaining financing decisions are less important that investment decisions, there is a line that says: "Financial ...
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How do treasury bill auction work?

So i am having a couple of issues understanding the auctions of treasury bills. I know that the treausury accepts the bids offering the highest price. The treausury accepts the competitive bids in ...
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Please help to create an interest rate swap

I'm trying to solve Hull's 7.2 problem for swaps. The problem says that: Well, my question is why Company X would need to make a swap contract if it has a good 9.6% interest rate in dollars (and it ...
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22 views

What is the Relationship between expected return and risk of corporate bonds?

So from my past studies i know that if the interest rate is expected to decrease, then the expected return will increase and the demand for long term bonds shifts to the right. If investors believe ...
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1answer
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Data analysis with GARCH modeling

I'm currently analyzing the relationship between stock, bonds, and real estate returns in Germany. I've gathered my data and am planning on estimating this equation: $\sigma_t = \beta_0 + \beta_1 R_{...
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107 views

What accounts for the high GDP of the United States?

Wikipedia defines GDP as: Measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time. So, I take it that the total value of all goods (and ...
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On the beliefs on the nature of Economy, Money and Profit

I have been taught in Money and Banking that money is any entity that has the following properties. 1 It is generally accepted as a means of transactions. Nonetheless how much is "generally" is a ...
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47 views

Yang's Impact on Algorithmic Trading?

Presidential candidate Andrew Yang has published the following policy proposals on his website: 1. FINANCIAL TRANSACTION TAX Financial markets have grown dramatically over the past decades. ...
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1answer
32 views

What happens when a subsidiary distributes its shares to its parent company?

After a subsidiary company spins off from its parent and becomes public, what happens when the subsidiary distributes its shares to the parent firm's shareholders at some later time? What I'm ...
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Is money mostly created (out of nothing) by banks making loans?

In the Bank of England's Quarterly Bulletin, 2014 Q1, McLeay, Radia, & Thomas write a pair of articles titled: "Money in the modern economy: an introduction" and "Money creation in the modern ...
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187 views

International Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM)

I wanted to value a High-tech start-up of which I have the cash flows of the coming 6 years. I decided to use the Discounted Cash Flow Method. To do so, I calculated the Discount rate. For a High-...
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What data/factors/attributes do the professionals monitor in a top-down analysis on the macroeconomics?

I am learning to do top-down analysis on a number of sectors in the US equity markets. I have never done it before and I would appreciate it if some professionals can share their experiences with me. ...
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93 views

Why is the cash in circulation on the rise in rich countries?

The amount of cash in circulation is on the rise in rich countries (US, EU, etc; except the cashless economy, Sweden). In the digital era, isn't this phenomenon contradictional? For example, here's ...
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Is it just as profitable for a brokerage to service investments in 401k plans as opposed IRAs?

Why would a brokerage charge fees to the employer, if they could just charge fees to the individual, like they would do otherwise? If an employer wouldn't want to spend any extra money on 401k plans, ...
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GARCH data modeling

I am analyzing three time series returns for stocks, bonds and real estate, and have done prelimanary tests including Engle's ARCH test which came back as not rejecting the null hypothesis. IF there ...
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1answer
67 views

Forward rate discounts

I'm working with the following task: "You are convinced that the bond market is dominated by long-term investors. Hence, you have your own view on the liquidity premium/discount that forward rates ...
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Acquiring a company :: How to treat working capital

I would like to know if you can help me in a valuation that I am currently working on. Problem framework: -I am valuating company A, which will acquire 100% company B with a 8x ebitda multiple (10M);...
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59 views

Present Value Analysis

For my exmaple, we have machine A with an initial cost of 15K and O&M of 2k per year for the next 4 years. After 4 years, the O&M rise to $2.7k per year. No salvage value and life span of 20 ...
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Why people set expectations for economic data beforehand?

For lots of economy/finance-related data, usually there is an expectation, and then people will compare the real data (when coming out) with the expectation, to see if it beats or misses the ...
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Why would minimum rent under franchise arrangements for McDonald's decrease year by year?

I am working on a project regarding the refranchising strategy of McDonald's and came across this piece of data in their 2014 annual report. My understanding of minimum rent is that its a fixed amount ...
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2answers
767 views

Compound interest problem using PMT in Excel

So I found this example in the net Compound interest formula (including principal): A = P(1+r/n)(nt) If an amount of $5,000 is deposited into a savings account at an annual interest rate ...
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26 views

Forecasting Volatility through GARCH and EGARCH models

I am at a final stage of my dissertation but I am a bit confused. I am trying to forecast volatility by using returns through GARCH(1,1) and EGARCH(1,1) models. I use daily prices of indexes to ...
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What is the difference between conditional and unconditional risk premia?

This is an asset pricing question. What is the difference between conditional and unconditional risk premia? Here's the context: The fact that carry trade strategies typically earn positive average ...
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Term for a policy that focuses on minimizing risk

What is the correct economics term for a policy that is focused on containing the spread of risks in the financial sector? I was thinking: risk-targeted policy?
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Optimal price function: application of calculus of variations

The problem, I am trying to solve is based on the paper by Rochet and Vila 1994 (see literature below). In fact, it is a variant of the seminal paper of Kyle 1985 in the finance/economics literature. ...
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In simple terms, what does the bank liquid reserves to bank assets ratio indicate in terms of world development?

From this website: https://www.indexmundi.com/facts/indicators/FD.RES.LIQU.AS.ZS I am very new to economics/finance and I would appreciate an easier-to-understand explanation of this term
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Calculating weighted average of operating margin (ROS) in benchmarking analysis

I'm looking for the formula for calculating the weighted average of operation margin data. From all the sources I've found so far it calculated as following: the sum of all EBIT data divided by the ...
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25 views

Fama's Definition of Market Efficiency

I'm reading Fama's Nobel lecture "Two Pillars in Asset Pricing" and I'm a little confused by his mathematical definition of market efficiency. Here it is below: Suppose time is discrete, and $P_{t+...
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Risks Quantification (soft question)

Can anyone please recommend literature (books, papers, whatever) on the topic of risk quantification? By risk quantification I mean financial assessment of e.g. credit or market risk. Free sources ...
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Assessing the ability of dividend yields to predict stock returns using out-of-sample forecast errors

In Introduction to Econometrics, 3rd Edition, by Stock and Watson, there is a short example about evaluating the ability of using dividend yields (current dividends over price) to predict future stock ...
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45 views

One-step Binomial model's Radon-Nikodym derivative

In the one-step binomial model... For $\frac{d \mathbb Q}{d \mathbb P}$, I think it's $\frac{d \mathbb Q}{d \mathbb P} = \frac{q_u}{p_u}1_u + \frac{q_d}{p_d}1_d$, so it's some asset with payoffs $\...
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56 views

Can central bank interest rate hikes lead to a price gain in equities?

I ran an empirical analysis on recent interest rate changes of European central banks on Swiss equity prices and found statistically significant results. A 1 percentage point increase in interest ...
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33 views

Cross-sectional t test & standard deviation

I've got a question regarding the cross-sectional t-test when determining the significance of CAAR in an event study with a sample of 538 transactions. When calculating the standard deviation of CAAR ...
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Is it the most efficient to allow free transactions in financial markets?

Most beginner level economics books include explanations why it is most effecient most of the time to allow free trade in the market of goods and services. (e.g. the theory of comparative advantage) ...
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How would one take advantage of this arbitrage opportunity?

I have a quick question about how arbitrage works. Let's say that there are two investments: Invest in a two-year zero Invest in a one-year zero and then reinvest into a forward contract from year ...
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How to interpret the (expected) exposure and CVA of an option or a single share

I have a quick (hopefully simple) question regarding the interpretation of the expected exposure of a call option and a single share. I've done some computations on the formula for the expected ...
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1answer
31 views

How to calculate cost of equity?

So i have this question on leverage and cost of capital: Leverage and the cost of capital Gamma Airlines has an asset beta of 1.5. The risk-free interest rate is 6%, and the market risk premium is 8%....
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1answer
25 views

How to calculate capital investment?

So i have this question: After spending 3 million on research, Better Mousetraps has developed a new trap. The project requires an initial investment in plant and equipment of 6 million. This ...
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Relation between variation of the drift and insurance fee?

what is the relation between insurance fee and the variation of the drift of the underlying asset? I've created a simulation code, and changing those two values does not change the result. As I assume ...
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How to calculate indentical cash flows?

So i have this question: Homemade leverage Companies A and B differ only in their capital structure. A is financed 30% debt and 70% equity; B is financed 10% debt and 90% equity. The debt of both ...
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1answer
41 views

Interpeting equivalent annual cash flows

So i have this question: RainMan Inc. is in the business of producing rain upon request. They must decide between two investment projects; a new airplane for seeding rain clouds or a new weather ...
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What is the effect on money multiplier of the following three cases?

Assuming ceterus paribas in each case: (i)The bank expands its operations in the field of financial derivatives. (ii) Increasing competition leads to a fall in the transaction costs incurred by ...
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39 views

log returns in finance

Why are log returns used in finance? For example to calculate a stocks performance. There are a lot of articles on that topic yet I don't find them very helpful. Could somebody please explain step by ...
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Is rent on a relocation — an example of unfunded liability?

I'm not too sure if the question makes much sense, but let's assume that you get a job offer in SF, and in order to accept, you basically have to sign a 6- or 12-month contract for rent in order to be ...
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1answer
11 views

Which measure of total loans is more relevant to Financial Stability?

I am writing a paper on the financial stability of the banking sector. One factor im looking at is the amount of new loans or credit issued (credit growth). I have two different total loan measures. ...
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1answer
57 views

Collapse of Lehman Brothers: What did they have in their books?

What kind of products did Lehman Brothers have on their books that caused the collapse? Do we have access to data on this topic?
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Industrial ownership [closed]

One of the salient feature of single proprietorship is Enterprise and owner entity is same. What does enterprise and owner entity refer to?
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Financial economics: Bond Price

I know that if the coupon rate on a bond is larger than the yield-to-maturity, then the price must be higher than the par value. Yet I have the bond price equation $P=\frac{c}{y}\left(1-\frac{1}{(1+y)^...
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What country has the highest requirements for loans?

I was looking to find countries with the toughest regulations on loans(general loans not any specific ones) By that I mean: I mainly care to know where it is toughest for people to get a loan from a ...
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Does commercial paper usually carry a higher yield than corporate bonds? Why?

In Banking: A Very Short Introduction, Goddard and Wilson write: [Commercial paper] usually carries a higher yield than corporate bonds. But aren't corporate bonds longer term than commercial ...