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Questions tagged [fiscal-policy]

the means by which a government adjusts its spending levels and tax rates to monitor and influence a nation's economy.

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Government deficit

When the economy of a government is facing a deficit, why can't the government just increase the taxes to pay for its expenses? I've read that it should rather borrow money, because increasing the ...
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Why is the appropriation for basic education in South Africa's MTBPS so low?

I wanted to find out how much South Africa currently spends on basic education (primary and secondary schools). The information is on www.treasury.gov.za . The last budget reports that the government ...
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Tariff Objectives

In 2018, the US administration initiated tariffs on metal (steel, aluminum) and other products from: China Canada Europe As I understand the matter, the US imports more than it exports. What are ...
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Do changes in fixed taxes have a bigger effect on real GDP compared with government spending because they affect consumption

True or False: Changes in fixed taxes have a bigger effect on real GDP compared with government spending because they affect consumption
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Could the inflation following the Gold Rush have been avoided, are we any “wiser” on inflation now?

Quoting Milton Friedman on the inflationary period shortly following the American Gold Rush in California: "Because there was more gold, they had to pay a little more gold to buy goods and ...
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What is the effect of expansionary fiscal policy in case liquidity trap situation?

I've read that liquidity trap means interest rate is at its minimum and increase in real money stock will not lead to fall in interest rate because people will be demanding whatever the amount is ...
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Fiscal budget: spending in real vs nominal terms

What does it mean in the context of a budget to “freeze spending in real terms”? And how would this differ from freezing spending in “nominal terms”? I am looking to understand how this would be ...
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Advice for finding literature for thesis

I have to write my bachelor thesis in the coming months and I was planning on replicating one of the leading papers of the last years in the field of macro economics. Problem is that I am ...
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Universal Basic Income [closed]

In 2017 some countries have adopted the Universal Basic Income as an alternative to Welfare Payments, my question is, is it economically feasible by governments?
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Debt accumulation equation derivation: valid given that it rests on calculus and the time period is a year? (nowhere near infinitesimal?)

Above is an image of what I’m referring to. The top ‘rule of thumb’ is derived using calculus, and hence is only valid for infinitesimal changes in t. However, this equation is considered over the ...
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How is reducing government expenditure supposed to reduce aggregate demand?

In my coursebook it says that in a deflationary fiscal policy governments may reduce government expenditure (such as building hospitals and road constructions) to reduce aggregate demand but I don't ...
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Does the separation of FinCEN, and The Federal Reserve protect the integrity of a representative democracy? [closed]

From my understanding, FinCEN is controlled or heavily influenced by the UN. In addition, The Federal Reserve is not a governmental body, yet it has appointees from the current administration. I'm ...
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How does Limited Friction affect a two-period model? Does the Ricardian Equivalence hold?

Consider a two period model with limited commitment involved. Each consumer has a component of wealth which has value $pH$ in the future period, cannot be sold in the current period, and can be ...
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What is fiscal impulse?

I came across this term in the following paragraph and I could not comprehend what it meant. The new WPI series does not include any indirect taxes, which brings it conceptually closer to the ...
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531 views

Why is there a structural deficit/surplus?

I'm going through Fiscal Policy and I'm reading about Structural Budget and Cyclical Budget. To my understanding, Cyclical Budget is what occurs when automatic fiscal policy is in use. So G and T are ...
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Is there a term for economic policy design built from minimizing per-household adverse impact?

May be easiest to start with an example: let's say I'm looking to eliminate the mortgage interest deduction, but want to minimize the impact on households from doing so. I also want the change to be ...
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Why can't direct taxes be passed on to the consumer? [duplicate]

What stops firms increasing prices of goods in the case of an increase of a direct tax such as corporation tax?
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Since it doesn't change the money supply, how can an “expansionary” fiscal policy alone spur economic growth?

I understand how monetary policy can be used to heat up an economy by increasing the money supply, but how can a fiscal policy do so? When the government borrows money to increase spending, it is not ...
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Economic effects of a Commons Capital Depository

Yanis Varoufakis (Ιωάννης Βαρουφάκης) proposes to fund a universal basic income (UBI) using dividends from a commons capital depository, essentially channeling a percentage of shares issued at an ...
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How can governments seemingly run permanent budget deficits?

How can countries afford to run budget deficits for decades on end and not become overburdened by interest payments on those debts?
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Is there a good mechanism to incentivize leveraged firms to take less risks?

It seems that there are some circumstances, say when the government foresees a financial crisis, where it would like firms to hedge, take less riesk etc. However, leveraged agents benefit from risk, ...
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How does an elastic Money Demand affects the effectiveness of fiscal policy?

From my notes: 'The elasticity of Money Demand reduces the impact on the interest rate of the increase in government spending...' My question is: if the Money Supply is inelastic, the elasticity of ...
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Macroeconomics: Aggregate Demand, Equilibrium Dynamics and Expenditure Multipliers

I am having a hard time with the following economic questions (See attached). Here is my approach: Note about the curves: The graph below depicts an economy where a decline in aggregate demand has ...
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How government borrowing from central bank increases money supply in economy?

Yes, public finance by government may lead to increase in money supply in economy. But, if govt borrows money from central bank, less amount of money is left with central bank to lend it to banks and ...
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Are there economic policies that help countries fight corruption?

Are there particular taxes or subsidies or public goods that a country's economic authority could implement to help in the fight against corruption? While the rule of law seems to be the first order ...
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What do economist state as evidence that “structural reform” works?

The typical recipe for countries to improve their growth rate and escape high indebtedness is to reduce expenditure and implement structural reform. What do people use as evidence of structural reform ...
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Why is fiscal deficit always shown as a percentage of GDP?

If the probable reason is because it must reflect the government's ability to pay back the deficit, wouldn't government income be a better indicator, rather than GDP?
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Negative interest rates - Fiscal Policy (Demand-side)

(This is part two of a series of questions I've posted here under "Negative interest rates") Motivation: I've happen to stumble on two articles, with some weeks, that the central bank(CB) of ...
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Why doesn't the ECB implement the same fiscal and monetary policy that the FED used to save the US economy?

If the Fed managed to save the US economy with their liberal expansionary policy, why doesn't the ECB follow suit if it is much more efficient in reducing unemployment etc? Also, why did ...
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What kind of policy is minimum wage?

Does it fall under fiscal, monetary, or supply-side, or perhaps some other group? Also (seeing as minimum wage is a form of price control policy), where does the broader "price control policy" fall?
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Have all the PIIGS tried stimulus?

Greece: signs of growth come as austerity eases Last month the Greek parliament approved a stimulus programme involving highway construction that is quite large. According to the ministry of ...
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Flat AD curve - policy effects

Suppose the AD curve is relatively flat because the Fed wants a stable price level. Which policy (monetary or fiscal) is ineffective?
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Could food storage prevent a depression?

In Genesis chapter 41 Joseph interpreted the dreams of Pharaoh about 7 years of plenty and 7 years of famine which resulted in saving Egypt from famine, among other things. I think this is a great ...
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Macroeconomics - Fiscal/Monetary Policy and the Price level

I was studying for my macroeconomics test by solving test banks and I came upon this question which has been really bugging me. To decrease the price level A.the Fed could buy bonds and the ...
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How much influence does the president really have on US economy?

We hear a lot about how the economy changed under a certain president, but how much does the incumbent actually affect the economy? Are the fluctuations we see in economic growth due to natural market ...
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How could monetary policy be affected if cash “gifts” to consumers were more frequently used?

A few years ago in the US, everyone who filed taxes received a check for $1000. If this method of inflation was logistically more feasible, how could this be used in monetary policy, and what ...
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Why are nations engaging in austerity when bond yields are historically low?

In the UK and EU austerity programmes are rife. However, bond yields are also historically low, and have even been negative! At a time when debt is cheaper than ever, and below the accepted long term ...
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What's quantitative easing?

From what I understand after reading mainstream media, quantitative easing increases the supply of money in the economy without direct government spending (fiscal policy). It seems to have all the ...
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557 views

In Indonesia, reducing fuel subsidy strongly impacts the price of everyday goods. Why?

In Indonesia, petrol/gasoline price is regulated by the government and historically it is heavily subsidized. I know, economists typically consider fuel subsidy to be a bad policy, for many reasons, ...
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Supply-side economics: reduction in tax

In a nutshell Supply-side economists support reductions in tax, because government revenue can increase (according to the Laffer curve) and businesses and consumers will be incentivised to invest (...
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Australian Dollar Devaluation

I am a layman in economics. I am curious about the current devaluation of Australian Dollar in comparison with the US Dollar. Could someone please explain, in simplest words possible: What causes ...
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Expansionary fiscal policy in a low mobility economy

I am reading the CFA Level 2 Economics section and I came across this statement: In emerging markets, capital flows may be restricted. In that case, impact of trade balance on exchange rate (goods ...
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What impact did major fiscal policy actions taken during the Great Recession (2007-09) have on U.S. economic performance?

What impact did fiscal policy actions taken during the Great Recession (2007-09) have on U.S. economic performance? Bush passed the Economic Stimulus Act of 2008 and also the Emergency Economic ...
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What major fiscal policy actions were taken during the Great Recession (2007-09)?

What major fiscal policy actions were taken during the Great Recession (2007-2009)?
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Impact of Fiscal and Monetary Policy during Great Recession on U.S. Economic Performance

What major fiscal and monetary policy actions were taken during the Great Recession (2007-2009)? What impact did they have on U.S. economic performance? I understand how how the recession occurred in ...
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Is a universal basic income possible in the United States?

Is a universal basic income or unconditional demogrant possible in the United States? (For the sake of specificity I have focused the question on the US, though the question is certainly interesting ...
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Are the figures quoted in this liblabcon's blog post accurate? (topic: UK banks)

Background With regards to the UK government. I have recently been involved in a debate stemming from figures mentioned in this blog post (the blogger was advocated by Occupy London's facebook page ...
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Federal Reserve vs National Bank [closed]

The US had a national bank during the first few decades after its birth before it was abolished. Today, we have the Federal Reserve. What are the differences between the Federal Reserve and a ...
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How to get details on all the models used for evaluating ACA?

I am trying to track down the models and the underpinnings/details for them for models that may have been used to evaluate the ACA/Obamacare. I am aware of Gruber's (proprietary) model, and am ...
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How come the CBO reported the Federal Deficit for FY2014 was \$483 Billion when debt went up by \$1.1 trillion?

The Monthly Budget Review: Summary for Fiscal Year 2014 states that the deficit was \$483 billion. Treasury Direct shows Total Public Debt Outstanding increasing over the same period from \$16.7 ...