Questions tagged [foreign-exchange]

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5 votes
2 answers
267 views

How does raising the Russian interest rate defend the Ruble from devaluation?

Raising interest rates to minimize currency devaluation is being adopted in countries like Brazil and Russia: Brazilian interest rate Russian interest rate How does raising the interest rate ...
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5 votes
1 answer
249 views

Is it true that the U.S has to run a chronic trade deficit with the rest of the world as a price to pay for being the world's reserve currency?

I have heard of the argument that in order for USD to be reserve currecy, the rest of the world must own enough USD to store it as reserves. In order for the rest of the world to own enough USD, U.S ...
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4 votes
2 answers
760 views

Can't a country grow its GDP without foreign investment?

Whenever various developing countries around the world talk about growing their economies, they talk about facilitating foreign investments and they put so much emphasis on it as if a country's ...
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4 votes
1 answer
349 views

How does Egypt prevent people from arbitraging their currency?

Apparently Egypt uses a fixed exchange rate so there is a substantial difference between the government rate for the Egyptian pound and the price on the street. What prevents someone from just buying ...
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4 votes
0 answers
48 views

What caused Russia's currency to appreciate back to pre-war levels despite sanctions and debt default? [duplicate]

Prior to its invasion of Ukraine on 24 Feb 2022, Russia's currency was trading at around 0.012 USD. Today, the Ruble is back near pre-war levels (currently 0.12 USD): I thought war, sanctions, ...
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4 votes
0 answers
48 views

Mechanics of Sterilized Intervention?

I'm looking to see if someone can help improve my understanding of sterilized intervention in FX markets. My intuition/understanding is: Assume that the domestic currency is depreciating, perhaps ...
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3 votes
1 answer
548 views

How does imposing 100 percent cash margin requirement on imports help to stabilize foreign exchange reserves of a country?

My country is facing a critical depreciation of its currency's exchange rate and the central bank has introduced a 100 percent cash margin requirement on a selected set of imports. My main problem is ...
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3 votes
1 answer
297 views

Why imports increase if higher relative inflation?

I'm reviewing a previous AP Macroeconomics exam and I saw the following question: The United States and South Korea are trading partners, and the United States has a zero current account balance. ...
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2 votes
2 answers
3k views

Who determines the exchange rate and how?

I have almost no knowledge about economics. However, a question always comes in my mind. How exchange rate really differ? I live in Bangladesh. So how, why, who changing BDT and US Dollar exchange ...
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2 votes
1 answer
45 views

Is the forex market a form of bartering?

I had this showerthought that the forex market is pretty much currency bartering. The forex market seems to be different from commodity or stock markets in that you exchange one currency for another. ...
2 votes
2 answers
582 views

Abolishing all tariffs without reciprocity

Is a policy of abolishing tariffs without expecting other countries do so a sustainable economic policy? What are the arguments for or against it? Fear of imports is very common among people. Money ...
2 votes
3 answers
197 views

Russian ruble drop in value due to low oil prices

http://www.americanactionforum.org/research/impact-falling-oil-prices-russian-financing/ Based on the above article, the author states that "For budgeting, this favors the oil exporter, because a ...
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2 votes
1 answer
2k views

Misleading vertical axis in foreign exchange graphs analyses?

The market for a currency typically has the y axis labelled as (currency1/currency2) where currency1 is the currency in which the demand and supply is for. If this is the case, wouldn't it mean that a ...
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2 votes
2 answers
178 views

(How) does Russia benefit if Gazprombank instead of Gazprom gets to keep the euros?

I know there's an older question here, but Russia has recently clarified (after some pushback from the EU capitals) what it means by gas payments in rubles. As RT explained: “Everything will be fast, ...
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2 votes
2 answers
154 views

How does interest rate impact exchange rate?

When I’m using the forward exchange rate formula based on non-arbitrage theory, it tells me that a positive interest rate spread (i_domestic > i_foreign)would cause the forward exchange rate(units of ...
2 votes
2 answers
83 views

PPP / currency evaluation

An economics book has the following example: In the USA, a Big Mac sells for 1 USD, while in Germany it sells for 3 EUR. The "fair" FX relation would therefore be 1 USD = 3 EUR. At the FX market, ...
2 votes
0 answers
220 views

Effect of Import Tariff on Supply of Currency on Foreign Exchange Market

I'm struggling with this question below for my macroeconomics course. If Argentina were to impose a tariff on its imports, how will the supply of Argentina's currency and its exchange rate be ...
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2 votes
0 answers
55 views

Reasons and mechanisms of Deutsch Mark revaluation in 1968

In November 1968, large inflows of foreign currency into the Bundesbank prompted Germany to enact a "pseudo - revaluation" with a special tax on exports and tax allowance on imports. Source: German ...
1 vote
3 answers
134 views

Why is oil being traded in U.S. dollars?

I am trying to understand the concept of money,forex, depreciation of currency,devaluing,...(just the basic stuff). While I was reading about why oil is being traded in U.S. dollars, on the internet, ...
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1 vote
3 answers
806 views

How is the rest of the world making the US an interest free loan by holding US currency?

In the book "Macroeconomics" by Olivier Blanchard & David R. Johnson, the following appears: In yet other countries, people who have emigrated to the United States bring home U.S. ...
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1 vote
1 answer
68 views

Why doesn't Russia buy USD to pay its external debt and avoid default?

(I apologize beforehand for this extremely clueless question! I have searched for the answer for a long time without success.) Credit rating agencies have recently declared Russia to be close to ...
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1 vote
2 answers
161 views

Why does an increasing demand for dollars lead to the depreciation of a currency?

I am self studying some slides of a course on monetary economics. The source of the slides is Pilbeam, chapter 11 on the mechanism of the Bretton Woods system. I don't understand the following ...
1 vote
1 answer
64 views

How does foreign trade work in a planned economy?

I know that in a planned economy all economic processes are ruled by the state and that there are disadvantages such as too much bureaucracy and that sometimes deals are not always met with demand... ...
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1 vote
1 answer
39 views

Why is it a problem if a considerable amount of currency is hoarded by the enemy of the issuing government?

During WWII and after Pearl Harbor, the United States issued the Hawaii overprint notes because they feared the possibility that if the Japanese captured Hawaii they would also control a considerable ...
1 vote
2 answers
477 views

How does Russia have so much foreign exchange reserves?

Source Russia is under U.S. sanctions. How does Russia have so much foreign exchange reserves?
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1 vote
1 answer
80 views

What physically happens when foreign currency reserves change?

Assume that the United States decided to hold more yuan in the federal reserve. Which processes does that involve? I assume there is some sort of electronic exchange between the two central banks ...
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1 vote
1 answer
48 views

Foreign Currency Reserves: Profit / Loss from Foreign Currency Depreciation / Appreciation?

From Wikipedia article on foreign exchange reserves: The central bank may, however, profit from a depreciation of the foreign currency or incur a loss on its appreciation. Why does the depreciation ...
1 vote
1 answer
41 views

Monetary sterilization’s working is wrong?

Say, there is an increase in demand for dollars (as compared to the other currency, say yen), which will put appreciation pressures on dollar. Then to counter this appreciation, we need to buy yen. ...
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1 vote
1 answer
30 views

Why would oil suppliers choose a lower priced contract?

The West Texas Intermediate (WTI) futures contract has ranged from \$6 to \$20 in the last 48 hours. The May Shanghai International futures contract is 205 Yuan (CNY). At 7 CNY per USD, that comes ...
1 vote
2 answers
134 views

How is India able to increase its foreign exchange reserves despite historically running a trade deficit?

Balance of Trade: https://tradingeconomics.com/india/balance-of-trade Foreign Exchange Reserves: https://tradingeconomics.com/india/foreign-exchange-reserves Remittances do help (avg. \$4B/mo) but ...
1 vote
1 answer
45 views

Monetary Approach to a depreciating currency

I am currently doing some research on the monetary approach to the effects of currency fluctuations on trade balance. It's been a while since I took an int econ class back in the undergrad, so I hope ...
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1 vote
2 answers
96 views

How does domestic demand affect the domestic currency's value

If an economy grows, due to a tax reduction for example, how does that affect the exchange rate? My logic would be that reduced taxes put more money into people's pockets, which they then use to buy ...
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1 vote
1 answer
112 views

Econometrics for currency valuation?

Different assets have different motivations and components for price determination. For example, an equity stock price might be considered to be include the value of underlying company, its potential ...
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1 vote
1 answer
915 views

Exchange rate and domestic money supply

It seems an obvious fact (not explained by authors but stated) that when a Central Bank purchases foreign currency (to stabilise its own), the domestic money supply goes up. It seems to me that the ...
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1 vote
1 answer
1k views

How should I adjust data for both inflation and foreign exchange rate?

I’m not sure if this is typically done, but suppose my data point is in 2013 JPY and I want to express in 2016 USD. Do I apply CPI to express data in 2016 JPY, and then apply exchange rate to 2016 USD?...
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1 vote
0 answers
24 views

How does US inflation impact dollarized nations?

For instance, would a high inflation rate on the US have any impact on countries that use the US dollar as their only legal tender, eg Ecuador or El Salvador? I often hear that high US inflation will ...
1 vote
0 answers
17 views

How are the rates between two currencies (fiat and cryptocurrecies) determined? [duplicate]

How are the exchange rate between two countries determined? For example how is exchange rate between the dollar and the euro established? My guess is it has to do with some form of demand/supply but I ...
1 vote
0 answers
41 views

What are the macroeconomic options available to China for resolving the Evergrande bubble?

Partly inspired by this Noah Smith article. I was talking with a friend and we were trying to itemize what options might be available to the Chinese government to resolve the collapse of Evergrande. ...
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1 vote
0 answers
40 views

How do currency boards maintain a 100% foreign reserve backing in the presence of fractional reserve banking?

Under a currency board system, money in circulation has to be 100% backed by foreign reserves. Suppose the domestic currency (A\$) is 100% backed by a foreign currency (B\$), with a fixed 1:1 ratio. ...
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1 vote
0 answers
29 views

What is the impact of money "sent" to another country?

I've been thinking about this a lot and I am not sure I have understood correctly. I was thinking about, for example, migrant workers who send a portion of their income back home, or wealthy ...
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1 vote
0 answers
34 views

The Crisis of Argentina

newbie here. Q1 - What needs to be done by the Argentinian government for their currency to regain back its strength? Q2 - Why has the Argentine Peso depreciated against the U.S Dollar for more than ...
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1 vote
0 answers
21 views

Exposure of two companies in a transaction involving an FX option

An American company $A$ has sold a manufactured product to a German company $B$, and they agree for the payment of 100,000 EUR in 1 year. What type of exposure does $B$ have? What type of exposure ...
1 vote
0 answers
91 views

How would a "one-way" fixed exchange rate backed by destroying foreign currency work?

Note: This question may seem really pointless, but it's actually in the context of a cryptocurrency idea I am developing, but I posed it this way as the question is not really about cryptocurrencies ...
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1 vote
0 answers
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Evaluating the return of a trading strategy on forex markets

Which measure should I use to evaluate the returns generated with a trading strategy based on announcements of macro-economic news on forex markets. I thought about the Sharpe-ratio, however I do not ...
1 vote
0 answers
63 views

What's the equation of currency fluctuation?

Preamble: Today the rate of EUR is 82.09 in BDT ( Bangladeshi Currency) and two hours later it's 82.50 ( I hope, it's increasing). But why does this fluctuation just keeps happening? Looks like the ...
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1 vote
0 answers
87 views

How does foreign exchange settlement work?

How does the settlement of trades in foreign exchange work? For example, if I am a large company with money in dollars and I buy another currency like Deutschmarks with my dollars, how does the money ...
  • 1,698
1 vote
3 answers
118 views

How do USD sanctions on Russia work?

On the 28th of February 2022, the US Government banned United States persons from engaging in transactions with the Central Bank of the Russian Federation. The motive was quoted as "to prohibit ...
0 votes
3 answers
164 views

Theoretical market capitalisation of a crypto currency?

Here’s the context. I want to know what the theoretical market capitalisation (say eg $US / Bitcoin times Q the number of coins - it doesn’t have to be Bitcoin) of a crypto currency? Assume that the ...
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0 votes
2 answers
77 views

Can an appreciating currency lead to inflation?

If a currency, e.g. the rupee (INR), is appreciating against, say, the USD, it possibly means that there is a high demand for the former. India could have net exports, high remittances, increasing ...
0 votes
1 answer
214 views

What negative effects would result from globally fixing currency exchange rates?

Assuming one had the power to enact such a wide-ranging change, what would the negative effects of fixing the exchange rates between all currencies at the current rates, or the mean of the last week/...