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Questions tagged [gdp]

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is a flow measure of the value of finished goods and services produced within a country's borders in a specific time period. GDP is typically calculated on an annual basis.

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Explain inflation to an economic novice

I'm trying to get a grasp on how exactly inflation works. What I've read so far seems to be contradictory. In some articles I've read that government spending is always(?) inflationary, and in ...
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Growth theory / Initial GDP: positive coefficient sign

I estimated growth regressions for several EU countries. In each of them, the sign of "initial GDP"'s coefficient is statistically significant but positive, which contradicts growth theory as well as ...
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Evolution of GDP to debt ratio

Is it possible for an entity (say a state, e.g. USA) to keep a constant GDP/debt ratio with a monotonically increasing debt. I should probably mention that I am not an economist (physics and c.s ...
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Calculate real GDP

Assume that the annual growth GDP per capita is 2%, how much will the real GDP per capita increase in 10 years. I know the manual way is to take 2 percent every years. For example after 1 year would ...
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GNI versus GNP for Measuring Development

In the calculation of the Human Development Index, Gross National Income (GNI) is used rather than GNP. I've searched around on the internet, but I haven't found a clear explanation of what the ...
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Does open source software contribute to GDP?

Does open source software contribute to the GDP of a nation? If yes then how, and how does it depend on the increase in usage? For instance, would an increase in the usage of open source software ...
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1answer
185 views

Will an increase in interest rate cause short run aggregate supply to shift?

Most business borrow for financing their purchases of raw material and capital etc. Shouldn't a interest rate rise cause cost of production to increase, therefore shifting SRAS to left? Thanks in ...
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1answer
128 views

Conversion of GDP PPP International \$ 2005 into GDP PPP International \$ 2011

Essentially I have two different datasets that I'm trying to consolidate. One set of data comes from the World Bank Databank, and is a set of historical GDP PPP values for all countries expressed in ...
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1answer
45 views

Is there a change over the business cycle in how much of economic activity is market-based?

Out of the total production in an economy, a big part is market-based, as when you make something and sell it. But a big part is not, as when you make something and don't sell it, but exchange it or ...
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1answer
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Calculating Service Contributions to GDP

Trying to get some clarification on how GDP is calculated for service industries. Are input resources netted out (e.g. fuel for an airline), the same way wheat would be for a loaf of bread? What ...
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1answer
483 views

Quarterly GDP growth: YoY vs QoQ / terminology

Quarterly GDP growth can be calculated either in terms of YoY change or - in the case of seasonally adjusted data - in terms of QoQ change. (A third option would be to annualize the QoQ rate.) To ...
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78 views

rates vs. level

For my thesis I will run some regression (OLS and ML: Probit). I like to distingish between variables in growth rates and variables in level form, if there is any important issue that I have to ...
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Okun's law nominal GDP growth

Does Okun's law also work for nominal (not real) GDP growth?
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Equation: If the equilibrium level of GDP is $21,500, what is the marginal propensity to consume?

Equations for C, I, G, and NX are given below. If the equilibrium level of GDP is $21,500, what is the marginal propensity to consume? C = 1,500 + (MPC)Y I = 1,000 G = 2,000 NX = -200
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How does real GDP take into account technological advancement?

I'm asking this question, since it was not explained in my textbook and since I couldn't find the answer in Internet. For example, 1 TB HDD costs 50 dollars now, and 100 GB HDD costed 50 dollars in ...
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430 views

Breaking down components of GDP per capita

GDP per capita can be broken down into 4 smaller components: Labor productivity, Average hours worked, Employment rate and Participation rate as can be deduced from the following formula: What I'd ...
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How do I convert real gdp into chained-dollar real GDP?

I have quarterly data for real GDP from 1981-2015. I also have quarterly chained-dollar real GDP from 61-2012. I need to have them converted into one series. I've looked up several different formulas ...
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Positive effects of a Tunisia-EU free trade agreement?

Tunisia might be signing a free trade agreement with the EU very soon. It's called ALECA or DCFTA. Many activists and labor unions are opposing such an agreement because it would result in losing ...
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Two ways of calculating real GDP: do they produce the same result?

My professor gave us two formulas for GDP for 2012 in 2010 dollars: y = P1 (2010) * Q1 (2012) + P2 (2010) * Q2 (2012) ... And: ...
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51 views

Test Series for Stationary Process

I want to apply grangers' Test between GSDP and Electricity production in the state. The state is a newly formed in the year 2000 and hence I have only 13 data points, as mentioned below Year | ...
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Data Set of Bourguignon and Morrison 2002 AER

This question is about the following paper: F. Bourguignon and C. Morrison "Inequality among World Citizens: 1820-1992", American Economic Review, Vol. 92, No. 4. (Sep., 2002), pp. 727-744. On p.730,...
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'Taxes less subsidies' included in income approach of GDP

Why is 'taxes less subsidies' a part of the calculation of GDP (income approach)? Is it because in the expenditure method of GDP, consumption expenditure will exceed those of the total "wages and ...
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0answers
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Economic history/geography of the UK (1960-today)

I am not an economist and I am looking for reference knowledge about how the economy of the UK (mainly focussing on England/Scotland/Wales) developed over the past 5 decades. The kind of information I ...
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Relation between growth rate of GDP and real interest rate for sustainable debt-to-GDP ratio

Why is the relation between the growth rate of GDP and the real interest rate important for sustaining the government the debt-to-GDP ratio ?
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Why Does National Data Usually Cite Average Income Rather than Median Income?

When I try to look into standard of living in a given country, I try to find median income figures. I can almost never find them. Instead, all of the data I can find is about average income, GDP per ...
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How can the “Share of merchandise imports at current PPPs” be negative?

I'm looking at the Penn World Table 9.0 data, and find that the "Share of merchandise imports at current PPPs" (csh_m) can be negative. For example, ...
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How GDP by expenditure and GDP by income method are same in this case?

Suppose I earn factor wage ₹1000 in the year 2018 and I pay a tax of ₹100 to the government. So GDP by income method is ₹1000 as we ignore transfer payments. Now if I spent all my 900 on domestic ...
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Is there any ranking of countries based on per-capita expenditure in R&D?

All the rankings available on the internet are "R&D expenditure by % of GDP". Is there any ranking of countries based on per-capita expenditure in R&D?
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How much does one percent of unemployment 'cost'? (Unemployment elasticity)

There is always debate that increasing minimum salary will pour in more money into the budget as those who get minimum salary will spend them immediately. The counter argument is that increasing ...
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0answers
33 views

Recommendations for ways to address gaps in GDP data?

I am a biologist that is using GDP data as part of my next research project and I am finding large gaps in the data, both in terms of years and countries. I am wondering what the best practice is for ...
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42 views

Influence of a TTIP on the GDP of a european country

So my question is simple but what I would like to know is if my method of calculating something like that plausible or not. So it goes like this : the formula we took at lecture for calculating is ...
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0answers
334 views

Interpretation of the Impulse Response Function

I have an IRF that shows the GDP shock to GDP. Let's say I have a 5-year forecast of GDP. If there is an immediate 1% decrease in GDP today, can I adjust the original 5-year forecast by using the IRF?...
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20 views

How to extrapolate nominal GDP figures from year to another?

If I have data for nominal GDP data in local currency for several countries for a given year, how can I extrapolate the nominal GDP forward? Give that nominal GDP = quantities x prices, could I just ...
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14 views

What would be the GDP of India on CPI for year 2010-2014?

Since the government of India changed the GDP calculation method from WPI to CPI and according to government GDP is increasing than it was before. But the government is comparing the new GDP(with CPI) ...
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Are Federal Reserve Banks accurately forecasting GDP?

Following on a prior question Objective evidence of USA economic "boom", I took a look at the GDP forecasts for 2018 Q2 provided by the Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta and NY. As of May 9 the Atlanta ...
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Interpretation of a case in which There is a significant difference between consumer price index and GDP deflator?

We know the both GDP deflator and consumer price index are often used for measuring inflation. Now my question is how a case in which there is a significant difference between them be justified? My ...
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32 views

Consumption Tax Effect

A country imposed a value-added tax of 7% on the consumption of the majority of its goods and services. Said government has a large and relentless govt budget ...
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45 views

Government expenditure multiplier in a class divided society

Supposing that a society is divided between a rich class and a poor class. Also supposing that $0<k<1$ is the proportion of GDP going to poor class and $(1-k)$ of the GDP going to the richer ...
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real rates and domestic demand

recently i read somewhere that an emerging economy was vulnerable because it was running low real rates that failed to contain domestic demand pressures. can someone explain what is meant by this? i ...
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23 views

How does opening inventory affect the measurement of GDP?

So I understand that opening inventory is the unsold goods from last period which were treated as investment expenditure in that period. But what happens to GDP in this next period when these goods ...
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38 views

Increasing federal non- defense spending % GDP and progressive taxation

Making the U.S. more like Europe: Viewed from a GDP perspective, total U.S. governmental spending was steady at about 33 percent GDP in the mid 2000s and then jumped, in the Great Recession, to 41 ...
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GDP computation

Lets say a fashion designer charges £5,000 for each cloth that she makes. The fashion designer pays her shop apprentice £500 per cloth made in return for sweeping the floor and other chores, and ...
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51 views

Using trade data in current dollars with GDP in real dollars

I am trying to calculate trade/GDP ratios for countries using two sources: (1) Maddison's historical GDP series (which gives GDP in Geary-Khamis 1990 dollars), and (2) a dataset which reports trade ...
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28 views

Gross National Income for Personal Income?

is there such a thing as the measure that amounts to roughly the aggregate of personal income for a country (say: all salaries combined) and an aggregate of corporate income. But as separate figures, ...
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Energy in production

Economists use labour and capital as the primary factors of production in income approach to output calcluation. Both labour and capital are reproducible factors. I can compute labour and capital cost ...
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What affects the percent of working women within the country

I am making a multidimensional regression model. The independent variables that I have chosen are : 1)GDP per capita 2)life expectancy 3)average birth per woman 4)female unemployment 5)feminine ...
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Extremely growing wealth counterbalanced by investments?

Currently I am reading Samuelson's "Economics" (in a German translation). I found it very enlightening and especially the chapters on the equality of 'savings' and 'investment' in domestic-product. ...