Questions tagged [government-debt]

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Financial manipulation and Inflation as tools for sovereign debt default

In the book This Time Is Different, by Reinhart and Rogoff, in chapter 8, the authors state that Higher minimum level of reserves (?) And/or upper bound/ceiling to interest rates ( will help increase ...
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How is there more debt then money? [closed]

Debt is money, and money is debt. The central banks buys government bonds with interest, and the government spends it. Example, The Federal Reserve buys 1 trillion in bonds @ 0.25% interest from the ...
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First order approximation of consolidated budget constraint describing the evolution of government debt

I am trying to derive a first order approximation of the government's budget constraint around a zero inflation steady state. This is from Jordi Galís 2020 paper "The effects of a money-financed ...
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What are the most liquid alternatives for EU-Government bonds?

I'm currently working on a dissertation for which I need data on EU-sovereign debt. As I need high-frequency data, I'm looking for ETFs or Funds with significant exposure to individual EU-member ...
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Is there a source which informs the public of who is buying up newly issued U.S. Government debt?

Is there a list somewhere of who is buying the newly issued debt that will finance the American Rescue Plan (the $1.8 trillion stimulus package signed recently)? Of course, I have an idea of who owns ...
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1answer
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Why isn't high inflation along with robust welfare a 'good' system?

High inflation, by definition, means that the demand for goods and services is higher compared to the demand for currency. In other words, people are more willing to give up currency for goods and ...
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1answer
35 views

Risks asscoiated short term stimulus as interest rates approach zero

TL;DR Government interest rates are approaching zero. What are the risks to borrowing large sums in the current enviroment? Would inflation occur? Full Story I was recently reading an article about ...
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1answer
41 views

How does the treasury determine the rates of the bonds they sell?

My understanding is that price and yields are determined via supply and demand. How are the interest rates determined when the bonds are auctioned off?
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What are the economics advantages for not rolling a debt (as a country)

Let's assume that a country has a GDP growth rate of approximately 1% per year (the number is not important). Then the government of such a country can theoretically roll its current debt and even ...
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How much of new debt in Italy is due covid?

The debt to GDP of Italy ballooned in 2021 to 158.5% (https://www.reuters.com/article/us-italy-budget-debt-idUSKBN29L0PP). That is almost 20% increase from 2019. I wonder how much of that is just ...
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What is the difference between “borrowing” money and “printing” money?

When a country's government has a budget shortfall, that country has to find some way to pay its contractors/emplooyees. Unlike a normal company, the government can't simply go to the bank and ask to ...
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Does IMF consider the international reputation of a country?

Hi I have three question below which I tried searching on internet and read a lot of literature as well. Besides all the literature sources I need to know some practical knowledge of people out there. ...
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How did the US Government fund its deficit when the Federal Reserve was pruning its balance sheet in 2018-1019?

The primary way for Governments to fund their deficits is by issuing new currency from the central bank against new treasury bonds. The Federal Reserve reduced its [balance sheet]1 from 4.4 trillion ...
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1answer
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What are the 'Public Account Liabilities' of the Government of India?

In the Quarterly Report on Public Debt Management for the Quarter Jul - Sep 2020 of the Government of India, an increase in 'Public Debt Liabilities' is declared. What are they?
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Difference between 'Internal Debt' and 'Market Loans' in RBI public debt statistics

While perusing RBI public debt statistics, I am at my wits end in trying to figure out the table headers. I am unable to sum up any combination of them to get any other. Specifically, what is the ...
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1answer
38 views

Can the US government selectively cancel debt held by the Federal Reserve?

Sort of a follow-up to this question on the Politics SE, which asked about the US government cancelling debt held by China. From the answers to that question, this kind of selective default is not ...
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1answer
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Why is market absorption of issued US Treasury Bonds (with the Fed purchase plan) a problem?

Financial market reports suggest that there are uncertainties about the Federal Reserve's ability to absorb new US Treasury Bonds issued in larger quantities to support the US government's growing ...
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Is the debt owed to resourceful producers by resourceless consumers practically irrepayable?

Here is my argument for the debt owned by resourceless consumers to resourceful producers (as currency, bonds, loans, or other means). Is it correct? If not, where am I going wrong? Economic value is ...
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1answer
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Why don't Governments do away with the optics of taking on debt against new currency, and instead issue a limited currency every year (say 5% of GDP)?

Governments engage in the optical illusion of taking on debt against issued currency. The debt is effectively owed by the Government to itself. The value of the debt is completely controlled and ...
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What would happen to Eurozone and EU if Italy defaults on its debt?

Question What would happen to Eurozone and EU if Italy defaults on its debt? Background & disclaimer This direct question is an attempt to amend the more expanded question. Given that this ...
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1answer
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Oliver Hart said that financing deficits by printing money can lead to hyperinflation “once the economy is close to full capacity”. What does he mean?

In response to a poll on Modern Monetary Theory, Nobel Laureate Oliver Hart said that Governments financing deficits by printing more money "can quickly lead to inflation or even hyperinflation ...
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What exactly is the risk Italy's high debt to GDP ratio poses to Eurozone and EU? [closed]

Background Us laymen read all around that Italy's weak economy and its high government debt/high debt to GDP ratio is threatening the financial stability and health of Eurozone and EU. However, little ...
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2answers
47 views

For stability, is there a limit to the sovereign debt that a Government owes to itself against issued fiat currency?

Looking beyond the optical illusion of Governments owing debt to Central Banks, Governments effectively owe themselves the sovereign debt created against issued fiat currency. By definition, there ...
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1answer
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Why it is important to observe if the 10Y treasury yield moves nowadays?

in the context of low yields, where fed continues with fiscal stimulus, I've heard from many economists that this week the 10Y treasury rate has been finally increasing. In which situation is this ...
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Does the US Federal Government keep public records of annual service payments on external (foreign-owned) public debt?

I'm doing some research on international debt policy, and I'd like to be able to compare some statistics I've compiled of external public debt in HIPC (heavily indebted and poor countries) with the ...
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National debt vs having national assets

What hypothetical benefits and problems would a country have if it decided to have positive balance? That is, to have its debt much smaller than its assets. Similar to what Norway does. And reverse, ...
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What happens when government bonds purchased as part of central bank quantitative easing (QE) reach maturity?

Does the central bank ask the government to pay or are they rolled over?
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91 views

How does high U.S. federal debt affect its citizens?

My apologies if this is a silly question. My background isn't in economics, though wish I had some. During the 2008-9 financial crisis, federal debt increased significantly and there was a small talk ...
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1answer
42 views

Why would governments sell bonds when the economy is in recovery? [closed]

China confident of meeting 2020 fiscal targets, CGTN, 7 August 2020. The article states that China is selling "special government bonds". Why do this? Especially when economy is just ...
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1answer
81 views

Does national debt and its repayment assume population increase?

I assume that the repayment of an increasing national debt depends on an increasing GDP. And increasing GDP, in turn, depends mutatis mutandis on increasing population. So an increase in national ...
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1answer
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How to calculate Debt to GDP ratio quarterly?

I know the formula Debt to GDP ratio = Debt : GDP I have debt quarterly data and GDP (yearly and quarterly). The one that make me confuse is, when i use Debt Q1 2014, for example it wont match with ...
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1answer
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Why are the YTMs of TIPS of longer maturities more sensitive to current interest rates and inflation rates?

According to this website, the yields of TIPS of longer maturities are greater than that of TIPS of shorter maturities. It seems counterintuitive since yields of longer-maturity bonds, which are based ...
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1answer
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Even at the break-even inflation rate, isn't the YTM of a TIPS greater than that of a normal treasury bond?

At a the break-even rate of inflation, the semi-annual interest payments from a TIPS and a normal government bond would be roughly equivalent. However, the principal amount originally invested in the ...
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2answers
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What is the opposite of public debt?

The opposite of a budget deficit is a budget surplus But what is the opposite of public debt? Instead of govt/state being in debt, having the government have extra money to keep or to lend it to banks ...
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Does China issue treasury bonds too?

The USA is issuing a lot of treasury bonds and investors are buying it. But does China issue such bonds too? If yes, then how many such bonds did they issued and who are the largest owners of those ...
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1answer
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Why did Germany use hyperinflation to free itself from an external debt?

Im reading about how Germany used almost any solution To free itself from its WWI debt: hyperinflation, calculating payments on the basis of the economy's potential, rescheduling annuities and finally ...
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1answer
65 views

How can a government save, if it has deficit?

I am reading an IMF paper about China's debt (link) which says: ❝ Despite a large augmented fiscal deficit of 10 percent, fiscal savings remain higher than other countries, resulting from the biased ...
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Modelling the effect of crisis on unemployment

We want to estimate the effect of crises on a country's unemployment rate and distinguish the strength of this effect according to the debt level in a country (i.e. via the interaction effect crisis x ...
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1answer
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Are the primary dealers obliged to buy treasuries no matter what?

It is said that treasuries are the highest quality debt because the government can always "print money" to pay the debt. But, isn't so that the ones printing the money to loan to the ...
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1answer
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Are government bonds internal or external debt?

I was watching this video and since it's a bit oversimplified I wanted more information. I was curious because internal debt is in the local currency from local lenders, while external debt is in a ...
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2answers
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What is the purpose of the Treasury issuing bonds?

I have always thought that the US Treasury issues bonds to raise money to allow the US to pay off debts in the short- and long-term. However, recently, I have read in a book on Modern Monetary Theory ...
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1answer
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What does the Fed do with their profits?

As far as I understand the system the Fed prints money which it then uses to buy bonds. Bonds are basically statements of debt meaning that the Fed receives interest from the parties it has bought the ...
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1answer
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Real yields and growth [closed]

Found the following very interesting statement on bond prices, "The yield on a risk-free government bond should equal the growth in nominal GDP since that represents the opportunity cost of holding a ...
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Increase in Debt / GDP positive or negative for currency?

When a nation-state and/or monetary union increase it's debt to GDP ratio. Is this a net positive or negative for its currency?
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1answer
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How do debt-free governments control the money supply?

From what I read in my introductory macroeconomics textbook, central banks can control the money supply by selling government bonds in the market (decreases money supply), or by buying government ...
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Why do people buy negative interest rate bonds?

I get that people buy long term government bonds, because of how safe it is, and if there would be a recession the government would just print more money and could pay it back. But why would anyone ...
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2answers
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How do the Government, Firms and the Foreign sector pay their debts in this circular flow of income?

Here is a circular flow of income that I took from Krugman's macroenomics textbook. Please notice, in this diagram households just give their savings to banks (which are part of the financial sector) ...
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Governmental debt after COVID

Is there any well-researched studies published about the effect of increased governmental spending and later deepening debt burden due to COVID? Appreciate that the event is quite recent, but being ...
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Do states compete with each other when they emit debt?

Let's say that, for some reason (a crisis or similar), many first-world countries' states need to emit public debt to be able to pay the services the normally provide (pensions, health etc.). As I ...
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The process of printed money reaching the government?

I saw a link that suggested that when the fed prints money, this money is actually lent to the government in the form of bonds, not given. This, despite the fact that the Fed is (loosely) associated ...

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