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Questions tagged [inflation]

Inflation is generalized increase of prices of goods and services in an economy, along with a corresponding fall in the purchasing value of money. The rate of inflation refers to the increase of the price of goods and services over time.

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21 views

Why would expanding fiat paper issue lead to decreased exports?

I'm reading "A History of Money and Banking in the United States" by Murray Rothbard, and I'm having trouble understanding this one piece of history. Basically, the Massachusetts government issues ...
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Question on Central bank loss function interpretation

How do you interpret this central bank’s loss function: $$L(\hat x, \pi)=\alpha \hat{x}^2+(\pi-\pi^T)^2$$ where $\alpha >0$ and $\hat x$ is output gap. Phillips curve is $\pi = \theta \hat{x}+\...
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What insights can be gleaned from examining inflation spreads?

I was reading through some econ articles and there was much discussion on various measures of inflation. Though I'm not narrowing the scope to this article, I'll include the excerpt here for context: ...
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Difference between 2 ways of measuring sales against inflation (Compare Variation and Deflate)

Let's say we have these data: $p_{t-1}$, price index at time $t - 1$ = 100 $p_t$, price index at time $t$ = 120 $s_{t-1}$, sales at period $t - 1$ = 110 $s_t$, sales at period $t$ = 154 Then which ...
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What is the long term outcome of inflation?

I was just reading how \$1 from sometime in the mid-1800s is worth a little over $30 today. This got me wondering, where does this go in the long term? In the year 2400, will a loaf of bread be $200? ...
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How do major global events interact with debt cycles?

I recently watched Ray Dalio's video on how the economy runs on short/long term debt cycles. However I was wondering how other major events impact economic growth: How does the short and long term ...
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1answer
20 views

Does finding real income adjust for inflation?

I have been reading from this textbook which talks about CPI and inflation http://faculty.washington.edu/cnelson/Chap04.pdf On pages 5 and 6, it talks about how they are deflating the nominal ...
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1answer
22 views

What would mortgage payments be if monthly payments were constant in real terms?

From the Wikipedia: The fixed monthly payment for a fixed rate mortgage is the amount paid by the borrower every month that ensures that the loan is paid off in full with interest at the end of ...
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2answers
82 views

Calculating the amount paid for a loan in today's dollars

So I was trying to figure out the amount paid for a loan in today's dollars using two different methods but they give me different results. I was hoping that someone could explain which method is ...
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25 views

Expected Inflation and its results

I was reading a macroeconomics textbook and found two statements which seem kind of contradictory so I wish to ask how to correctly interpret this. “When expected inflation is high, people increase ...
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2answers
177 views

Why has M1 grown a lot faster than M3 after the financial crisis?

While the fed has printed a lot of money the last decade and the M1 money quantity growth rate has gone up significantly (red), the M3 growth rate (blue) is almost exactly the same as before the ...
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Explanation for Mundell-Tobin Effect

Apparently, Mundell and Tobin used different methods to explain the Mundell-Tobin effect (which means that in general higher inflation increases the nominal interest rate, but decreases the real ...
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1answer
31 views

Why loans/debt can cause inflation?

I learned that inflation can be a result of more loans or debt. When there are too much borrowers in the country, people will have more money to spend and the amount of products is the same so prices ...
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Why growth of national income in current prices during inflation not measured in poor sections and poverty alleviation programs?

Here 1) dwindles means reduce, smaller. Here is my doubt: If inflation fluctuates how can we use the word 'dwindles', what it means here? 2) Why the growth rate during inflation not measured in poor ...
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1answer
39 views

Can't we measure the growth in the income levels of poor?

Inflation has been a challenging aspect of policymaking. In such situations growth in the income levels of the population living below the poverty level can never be measured accurately (due to ...
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42 views

Why is price dispersion from Inflation called relative price “distortion”?

I know what relative price is and that it fluctuates more frequently in times of Inflation. But what I don’t understand is why it is called “distortion” when relative price dispersion is caused by ...
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31 views

How is hyperinflation categorized, and how is it fixed?

I have a few questions about hyperinflation that I’m really curious about: I learned there are two types of inflation - demand pull and cost push. I was wondering if hyperinflation fits into the ...
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Impact of healthcare and college tuition on inflation

For as long as I can remember people in the US have complained about the high cost and trajectory of college tuition and healthcare expenditures. I've also read that inflation has been low for awhile ...
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1answer
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How to calculate inter-annual variation of inflation for a 3 months period?

I have the monthly indexes taken from the National Institute of Statistics of my country (below), then I can calculate its inter-annual variation easily: ((index month year - index same month year - ...
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Why can't a country print its own money to spend it only abroad?

If a country prints money and distributes it between the people, it causes inflation. But what if a country prints its own money to spend ONLY abroad, which would allow a country to buy whatever it ...
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Why is having lots of silver and not raising/decreasing taxes leads to inflation in a country?

In The Spanish Empire, Silver, & Runaway Inflation: Crash Course World History #25, it is claimed that "In ..., the silver was pouring into Spain, and because they were collecting same taxes as ...
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107 views

Universal Basic Income: Indexation and Inflation

Let’s assume a monthly Universal Basic Income (UBI) payment of \$1,000 and an annual inflation rate of 2%. I would like to understand what would happen to the real value of this UBI (its purchasing ...
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1answer
25 views

Manipulating index numbers

I have a producer price index which is the composite of 9 various commodity prices including that of coal. I want to remove the effects of coal price changes from the original index. I have data on ...
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Does the contractionary monetary effect of tax conpensate for its deadweight loss?

We all know that if the government impose a tax on a product, then tax revenue is less than loss in consumer and producer surplus. This is known as deadweight loss. We also know that taxing is a ...
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Best way to measure company size relative to world GDP

I'm working o a model where corporate revenue / world GDP is a dependent variable of some stuff (based on the model proposed in this paper: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?pid=S1807-76922009000200002&...
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Why is a little inflation good for the economy? [duplicate]

This is a slightly general question. It's often said that slight inflation keeps the wheels of the economy running. Why is that the case?
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1answer
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Puzzle: Fairness of consumer price indices

I have learned a bit how the consumer price index (= inflation rate) in Germany is calculated. It's a complex process, which takes into account a lot of measured values (mainly specific prices for ...
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1answer
84 views

Why is an inflation rate of 2% optimal? [duplicate]

Learning from different sources I got the impression that the European Central Bank targets at a inflation rate of 2% (not sure along which time scale actually). Can it be explained by general ...
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1answer
63 views

The law of supply and demand - How does it work?

I've learned what the principle of supply and demand says, and would paraphrase it like this: The price of a good is at equilibrium when supply and demand are equal. Or with other words: The ...
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Calculation of Inflation and purchasing power

kindly I'm stuck in this problem instead of many attempts through net present value and other discounted cash flow methods, some one could give me a detailed information and answers on this problem : (...
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1answer
50 views

Quantity theory of money

Suppose the velocity of circulation (V) is constant. Annual growth rate of real GDP is 5%. The money supply grows by 14% per year. Use the quantity theory of money to calculate the inflation rate. My ...
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Are corporate savings deflationary?

Example: Apple. People "overpay" for their products, money that ends up in corporate savings and not in their competitors' coffers, sort of a black hole because Apple doesn't see enough investment ...
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622 views

Did Zimbabwe have an inflation of 89.7 sextillion percent?

From a Cato Institute article by Steve Hanke1 (emphasis added): The Economist’s most recent infraction on Zimbabwe’s hyperinflation appeared in the May 2016 issue. The magazine claimed that the ...
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Is a loan lent with a rate under the inflation rate free money?

Suppose we have an inflation in a country with an annual 2% and we get a loan for an annual 1% (real interest). Is the money we receive free? This is a common practice in some European countries, ...
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71 views

How can I adjust the base year of this price index?

I am given the following data for GDP deflator: 1997: 100.0 1998: 100.8 1999: 102.5 2000: 109.9 2001: 112.5 2002: 115.9 2003: 119.7 2004: 122.1 2005: 126.5 ...and so on. Currently, 1997 is ...
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14 views

Demand-pull inflation versus going up aggregate demand curve

From what I understand, the AD curve on the AD AS model represents how the price level and real GDP will change when the AD increases or decreases. So if you go up the AD curve, the price level ...
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1answer
28 views

Nominal and Real GDP [closed]

If nominal GDP is, for example, \$1,620 billion in 2017 and increases to \$1,680 billion in 2018, is the growth rate 3.7%? Or does real GDP first need to be calculated using a deflator?
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Is there a standard methodology for calculating real prices?

Is there an established professional standard used by economic / financial institutions for including or excluding i) the starting year/period, and ii) the end year/period when calculating real prices ...
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14 views

Demand- pull driven inflation, how does it work if we dont add money?

I been thinking about the theory demand-pull driven inflation. If there is the same amount of "money" in the system this could not happen imo, there would always have to be a trade off what would ...
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Lower monthly inflation at the beginning of the year

Good afternoon, I just looked at several EU HICP time series, and what struck me was the fact that quite often the monthly inflation rate was way lower (even negative) in January/February, at least in ...
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5answers
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Can inflation occur in a positive-sum game currency system such as the Stack Exchange reputation system?

As most active users of this site know, the way the reputation system works is that everyone starts out with 1 reputation and a user can earn more reputation by asking good questions and writing ...
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1answer
33 views

Calculating 3m annualised rates

Calculating 3m annualised rates is a concept I've been struggling with for some time, but I think the below example illustrates what I am looking at trying to understand. The past 6 months of monthly ...
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1answer
17 views

Extraction of Inflation Expectation from bond yields

In my introductory monetary economics course we have learned that inflation expectations can be calculated by comparing yields on index-linked and conventional bonds of equal maturity and assuming a ...
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2answers
340 views

Why are the Fed's goals often described as the “dual mandate” and not the “triple mandate”?

The Federal Reserve Act Section 2A states: The Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System and the Federal Open Market Committee shall maintain long run growth of the monetary and credit ...
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1answer
112 views

Why inflation is still reported low?

Recently I heard from Richard Koo's video, that central banks have injected so much money to the banking system. There is enough reserves in the U.S. banking system to increase money supply 16 times. ...
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160 views

Would $1000/mo UBI funded by 10% goods and services tax cause prices to skyrocket, making the divident useless? [duplicate]

If everyone in the US was given $1000 per month, paid for by a goods and services tax of 10%, would prices then skyrocket, making the extra money useless? For example, if I wanted to buy products X, ...
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1answer
28 views

Real Income and a Fixed Money Supply

What would happen to nominal income and wages if the money supply were fixed (100% reserve banking). Would real wages increase, even though nominal wages would stay the same or even decrease?
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14 views

Positive Phillips Curve

I am doing some research for a class project for Phillips curve of countries. For a certain country that I am doing, I am getting a slope for the Phillips curve to be positive. Is this possible? ...
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15 views

Exploratory analysis about elasticity

I have been asked to perform some studies about the price elasticity of demand of an online seller. The concept of elasticity used by economists are more clear to me after some research on ...
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1answer
203 views

Why does capital flight cause inflation?

Context: I was watching a video about Venezuela, and, it all started with capital flight due to poor confidence in the government. The government tried to stop it, and in the process it created a ...