# Questions tagged [instrumental-variable]

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### Abadie's Kappa (2003) for continuous treatments / IVs

Does somebody know if there exist results and estimators to deal with controls in IV estimation under heterogeneous treatment effects, analogous to Abadie's Kappa (2003) for the binary case? Abadie, ...
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### Including Controls for Relevance Test in First Stage Regression of IV?

I am conducting an instrumental variable approach (IV) in my paper, and I am puzzled how to correctly test for the relevance / strength of the instrument assumption. I recently read in a paper by ...
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### Errors in variable, statistics/econometrics, measurement error

I didn't understand the deduction involving Plim. Why do the Plim of the terms on the left translate as variance in the first two cases? here is the continuation of the print. were i have the question
1 vote
36 views

### What does it mean to "replace all variables with the residuals after projections on any additional exogenous regressors"

I am conducting IV Regression and to make sure that my instrument is not weak, I want to use Montiel Olea & Pflueger (2013) robustness test. (see: Paper by Montiel Olea & Plueger (2013) ). To ...
55 views

### IV Regression with More Observations for First Stage than Second Stage

This is a very basic question, but I need help. Imagine I have a dataset for variables y, x, and z. I am running an instrumental variable regression such that y is my main outcome variable. So I am ...
36 views

### Examples of instrumental variables for business problems (not rainfall!)

I have been learning about IV as a non-economist and I think I understand the examples I've seen which used rainfall as an IV for modeling the sales of crops or fish at an outdoor market. However, for ...
1 vote
99 views

### Instrumental Variable: Bias & larger standard errors

Let's assume the instrument $Z$ satisfies instrumental exogeneity $corr(Z, \epsilon)=0$ and it's relevant $corr(Z, X_{end})≠0$. Where $\epsilon$ is error term and $X_{end}$ is the endogenous ...
1 vote
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### Using an enrollment probability as an instrument

Can someone walk me through whether this makes sense? Individuals can apply to be enrolled in a treatment (a particular program), or not. The probability of actual enrollment for applicants varies ...
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### Is my instrument too noisy?

I have an instrument, that I want to use with IV 2SLS, to predict my endogenous variable. The scatter plot of my instrument against my endogenous variable looks like this. Using Stata's binscatter, I ...
1 vote
43 views

### IV - Is this correct?

I have the following question. Currently I have an econometric model that uses an instrumental variable, particularly a Bartik instrument (which some people call shift-share). I'm proceding as Mayda ...
120 views

### How to visualize first-stage in IV regression?

I know what matters is the F-Statistic, but for a presentation it would also be nice to add a plot that visually shows the first stage. How to best visualize that? Say you have an outcome $Y$, ...
1 vote
236 views

### Can I instrument an endogenous variable and its quadratic form with the instrument and its quadratic form?

I have the following problem, where I would like to have an advise or a reference: I'm estimating a model which usually (in other papers) only includes the explanatory variable in its linear form, but,...
1 vote
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### Adding industry dummies to 2SLS in R

for my Master Thesis I want to regress the ESG score on the stock price drop during the pandemic. For OLS this works fine. To check for potential Endogeneity I also conduct a 2SLS regression with the ...
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1 vote
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### Using dependent variable's and exogenous variables' lags as instruments in 2SLS

Suppose we have the following structural equations: $$y=\beta_0+\beta_1x+\beta_2z_z+\beta_3z_3+\epsilon,$$ where $x$ is the endogenous variable and $z_1,z_2$ are exogenous variables. In the literature,...
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### How to calculate and interpret a marginal treatment effect (local instrumental variable)? (Intuition through simple example.)

I am working on the intuition behind local instrumental variables (LIV), also known as the marginal treatment effect (MTE). I have worked some time on this and would benefit from solving a simple. I ...
497 views

### What does it mean if the controls in my IV model are correlated with my instrument?

I am seeking to understand what it means for my 2SLS IV model if my controls are correlated with my instrument (such that when I add additional controls to my model that are positively correlated with ...
1 vote
551 views

### Stata's "ivregress 2sls" command - generating F-stats to test for weak instrument

I am transitioning to using the "ivregress 2sls" command in Stata for IV estimates. I've been trying to produce F-statistics to test for whether the instrument is weak. I believe that the ...
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### Imbens and Angrist (1994): the $D_i(z)$ variables

I'm referring to the Econometrica (1994) paper by Imbens and Angrist. In particular, I don't really understand the random variables $D_i(z)$ (defined on page 468). Could you please provide me with ...
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### Validity condition for Instrumental Variables

My professor states the validity condition in the following way: $W$ (the matrix of instrumental variables) must be such that $\text{plim} \, \frac{W'u}{N}=0$, where $u$ is the error term. ...
2k views

### Confounding versus endogenous variables. What is their relative hierarchical position?

There are valuable resources on the lexicon of types of variables quickly accessible, such as here. However, some of these concepts appear side-by-side often enough to make them confusing. For ...
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### Instrumental Variable Paper for Minimum Wage

I am trying to write a paper dealing with minimum wages and employment. I understand there is simultaneity bias between these two variables so I must come up with an instrument. Does anyone have any ...
1 vote
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### Using an instrument in IV that is not strictly exogenous to the variable it is instrumenting?

I am considering instrumenting HIV with ODA, to evaluate the impact of HIV on gold mining. There is a clear relationship between HIV and ODA, however it may easily be argued this is an endogenous ...
155 views

Sorry for my bad english, i'll try to explain my difficulty. 1° Question In the last exam an exercise asked to derivate OLS estimators and calculate their value with the data provided (ex.: $\sum ... 2 votes 2 answers 557 views ### Testing for Endogeneity I apologize if this question is very basic. I have the following plain vanilla Instrumental Variable model.$Y=\alpha+X\beta+\varepsilonX=\delta+Z\gamma+\eta\varepsilon\perp\eta,\quad Z\perp\...
Can you use two instrumental variables $z_1$ and $z_2$ at the same time for $x_1$ and $x_2$, in the following regression model $y=a+bx_1+cx_2+dX_{other}+e$, where $y$ is the explained variable, \$...