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Questions tagged [international-economics]

Use for questions related to international trade, commercial policy, open economy macroeconomics, international finance, and exchange rates. It can also be used in financial and monetary policies, economic development, migration and factor movements, as long as they are specifically related to an international context. Preferably use in conjunction with other, more precise tag.

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Does a strong exchange rate always mean a cheap holiday regardless of where you are from and going?

As question title states, does going from one country with a much stronger exchange rate, or a moderately higher exchange rate, in comparison to a country you visit always mean you get more bang for ...
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52 views

Do sanctions work?

When countries commit "economic crimes"---ie, theft of intellectual property, dumping, currency manipulation---are sanctions effective at making them stop? I am specifically looking for examples of ...
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15 views

What does an increase in REER signify?

What does an increase in the real effective exchange rate signify? I read from a news report that (localized for India): Furthermore, REER is calculated in such a way that an increase in its ...
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8 views

Cross Currency Swaps

How can cross currency swaps or derivatives be used to help a country hide its debt? How did Goldman Sachs do this in Greece’s case?
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14 views

What is the rationale behind David Friedman’s division of countries?

David Friedman stated, on multiple occasions, he’s wary seeing Europe become one single country. Similarly, he’d much rather have the US divided into more independent societies. What is ther ...
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1answer
34 views

Greek Debt Crisis

If the Greek government defaults on its bonds issued by French and German investment banks, how does that prevent the French and German governments from paying back the money that they owe to ...
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1answer
62 views

Is there a measure of similarity for economies?

Is there a measure of similarity for economies? For example, I would like to find the world economies most similar to the UK.
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21 views

Why bonds held by foreign investors is greater than total bond issued?

Total bond issued is reported by BIS debt securities data. Let BIS denote this amount. Bonds held by foreign investors is reported by Balance of payment statistics (IMF). It is the portfolio debt ...
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1answer
28 views

The Difference between investment and savings in CA identity

Mathematically speaking the current account is defined as: $$\text{CA}=S-I$$ where $S$ is savings and $I$ is investment. We know for a closed economy $S=I$ so $CA=0$. practically speaking for an ...
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23 views

Capital Flight and Interest Rates

I am currently reviewing some stuff on capital flights and self fulfilling crises. In this scenario, investors generally think that a low availability of reserves could imply that the central bank may ...
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1answer
22 views

Theory of Optimal Currency Areas

Should a country be more inclined or less inclined to join a currency union (common currency) under the following events: a) Increase in the size and frequency of AD shocks to the economy. b)...
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0answers
15 views

Can the USA really have an exchange rate policy?

I'm reading Martin Wolf's book The Shifts And The Shocks, about the global crisis. In it, there's a section where the author claims that the USA cannot not have an exchange rate policy, since all the ...
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J Curve and DD Schedule in the Short Run (International Finance)

Assume that the J-curve is true. What would the DD curve look like during the early period of the J-curve (where the value effect dominates)? What would the effect of temporary changes in monetary ...
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267 views

Does National Savings equal zero in a closed economy? Please give an economic intuition

Context: $Y -(C+I+G) = X - M$ In a closed economy, $(X-M) = 0$ Notations Y --> Income/Output C,I,G --> Consumption, Investment and Government expenditure respectively. X --> Exports M --> ...
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1answer
43 views

Why does the EU need a clearing centre to circumvent US sanctions against Iran?

As reported here and elsewhere, the EU is considering the creation of a clearing house to keep trading with Iran despite US sanctions. Why is it not possible for the EU to conduct normal financial ...
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0answers
38 views

how to find whether trade is possible between two nations [closed]

In the following image, we have U.S. and U.K. producing wheat and cloth in bushels/hour and yards/hour respectively. In all cases except in case D, given in the figure, trade is possible between ...
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1answer
43 views

How does the cost of switching over to green energy compare to the cost of the war in Iraq?

How does the cost of switching over to wholly green technology in the US at current prices and at current technology without factoring in possible improvements in efficiency or technology solely in ...
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1answer
38 views

What can explain increasing exports after default episodes?

I am going through a paper on sovereign default by Mendoza and Yue (2012), in which defaults are explained in terms of how firms that use foreign intermediate inputs lose access to international ...
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1answer
26 views

Emerging Market dollar debt, FX swaps and exchange rate risks

"An FX swap, on the other hand, creates no exchange rate risk for its counterparties. This is because currencies are sold and repurchase at fixed spot and forward rates. In other words, when you sell ...
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1answer
45 views

When can we expect China to become a developed country?

China has the 2nd largest GDP in the world and also has a high GDP growth rate. According to Richard Lynn's IQ and Global Inequality, the Chinese have a mean IQ of 105, which is one of the highest in ...
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1answer
34 views

Where can I find data on market capitalization?

I am working on Home Equity/Bond Bias and need data to calculate the indicators of Home Equity Bias. So where can I find data on market capitalization (stocks and bonds) by year for each country? ...
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1answer
42 views

Why do large financial institutions make international transactions in digital currency?

I've heard that blockchain technology has been used extensively by financial institutions when making international transactions to eachother, with speed and transparency and cryptographic security ...
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0answers
22 views

Dornbush model - relationship between i and S

In the Dornbush model, when we separate short and long run equilibrium. This is what I apparently have understood: SR1: an increase in Money Supply ($M_s$) leads to a fall in domestic interest rates (...
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0answers
22 views

Devaluation of exchange rate meaning

Pilbeam's textbook on International Finance (p. 106) says: (...) the immediate effect of a devaluation of exchange rate from $S_1$ to $S_2$ is to make domestic good competitive (...) How can be ...
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17 views

When finding targets in a trade war, does the goods balance or trade balance matter more?

By most measures, most people who look at trade balance, but it might include a good chunk of services imports/exports who might not be as readily subjected to tariffs.
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1answer
32 views

Terms definition in Balance of Payment

I have problems in distinguishing among terms in the Balance of Payment / the international balance sheet of a nation. As far as I know, on Assets and Liabilities sides of BPM, there are Portfolio ...
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1answer
35 views

Why shouldn't governments use Forex reserve to pay their debts?

India has around 470 billion USD in debt and has around 400 billion USD in forex reserves. So why should India or any other nations shouldn't use their forex reserves to pay off their external debt ?
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Generic bond yileds

I was looking on historical sovereign bond yields for a project. I was wondering what is meant by "generic bond yields" mentioned on bloomberg. Somewhere else i found data about the same country but ...
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2answers
688 views

Why would China and Russia selling the US' debt ruin the economy?

I was listening to an interview with David Harvey and he mentioned that if Russia and China were to sell the debt owed to them by the US, the US economy would take a serious dive. How would they sell ...
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3answers
68 views

Why does a strong dollar make imported goods cheaper?

I'm having a hard time visualizing why a strong dollar would make an imported good cheaper? If I buy an ounce of gold in the US for \$1,353.70 (todays rate) and I buy an ounce of gold in Europe, ...
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1answer
146 views

Impulse response functions?

I have a very basic model about a small open economy. This is a summary: $$ E_0\sum_{t=0}^{\infty}\theta_t U(c_t, h_t) $$ utility function: $$ d_t = (1 + r_{t-1})d_{t-1} - y_t + c_t + i_t + \...
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0answers
71 views

Consequences of a positive uncovered interest rate parity (UIP) spread for an emerging market economy

Empirically we observe that the uncovered interest rate parity (UIP) does not hold; in fact the exchange rate adjusted return on an emerging market bond is higher than the return on US bonds; I know ...
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3answers
72 views

Why are aeroplanes not made in one place?

As an example, different parts of an Airbus A380 are produced in factories all over Europe, and then assembled in a factory in France. Transporting these massive objects must be incredibly expensive (...
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1answer
106 views

Why can we see the Current account as variation in NIIP?

Let's designate the Net International Investment Position(NIIP:it's the net international wealth of a country), as $B_t$. Why can we see the current account at time t, as $CA_t=B_{t+1}-B_t$ , when we ...
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2answers
186 views

How does Russia have so much foreign exchange reserves?

Source Russia is under U.S. sanctions. How does Russia have so much foreign exchange reserves?
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1answer
308 views

What's the economic effect of a country reducing its imports?

If a country enacts a program that successfully reduces its imports, eg: A 'buy local' advertising campaign A program of training mechanics to maintain older cars, rather than buying new imports An ...
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1answer
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How could the economic cost of the world not speaking the same language be estimated?

While languages are fun and add color and flair to cultures and make the world a more interesting place, they also have a cost. Beyond the monetary costs of translation/editing/proofreading, ...
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0answers
30 views

Why Yen grew stronger after North Korea's H-bomb threat? [duplicate]

Financial markets have had only a muted reaction to the dispute in recent months, but on Friday assets regarded as havens for investors jumped immediately after the news of North Korea’s latest H-...
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0answers
123 views

Under what conditions are tariffs or export subsidies expansionary?

Charles Kindleberger writes in the introduction to /The World in Depression/: The imposition of tariffs should be expansionary for the importing country, if contractive for the countries losing ...
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2answers
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How is sending money out of a country draining its economy?

From this article: Every year, Mexicans working in the U.S. send at least $20 billion back to Mexico in the form of remittances, placing a huge drain on our economy. But I don't see what negative ...
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2answers
148 views

Why does every electronic transaction of USD legally take place on American territory?

In an article of a respected German newspaper (Die Zeit) I found the following statement (translation by me): 90 % of all foreign exchange trades are dealt in USD. Since every electronic ...
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1answer
227 views

How can the HKMA peg the Hong Kong dollar at 7.8 HKD/USD for so long?

A lot of pegged exchange rate systems don't stay pegged for so long (e.g. because the central bank run out of reserves to maintain their values) So far I understand that the HKD is 100% backed by the ...
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2answers
2k views

What would happen if the US defaults on its debt?

As has been widely discussed already, the situation in Greece is considered more serious than in the US, as they have dollar-denominated debt and can only print Greek currency. The US, has the benefit ...
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3answers
48 views

What is used more: economic growth rate compared to previous quarter (GPSA), or growth rate compared to the same quarter of the previous year (GYSA)

For my thesis I'm writing about the Baltic states and why they didn't vote out their incumbent governments despite undergoing severe austerity. As part of that I'm looking at their growth rates from ...
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2answers
112 views

Why war can remit the economic crisis?

In the history, like Japan, in the World War II, they had a hand in the war, the root cause is the economic depression. And in this century, some country use this method many times to remit the ...
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1answer
232 views

Net Positions vs Gross Positions as they Relate to the Current Account

What is the difference between say, gross asset and liability positions and net asset and liability positions? I mean these terms in the particular way that Cavallo and Tille use them in their 2006 ...
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1answer
30 views

Link between supply of domestic assets and monetary policy

From Treasury's Oct'2016 FX policies report: Switzerland’s economic policy situation is distinctive given its relatively small stock of domestic assets, which limits monetary policy options to ...
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1answer
1k views

What does 'one dollar, one vote' mean?

Can you tell/ describe me what the phrase 'one dollar, one vote' means? But you have to use basic English or kid's English. :-) I found the phrase in one economics book (Introduction to Economics by ...
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1answer
146 views

Are Terms of Trade reciprocal?

I am trying to learn the meaning of Terms of Trade, but I'm confused. From the wikipedia article, it says that TOT is the ratio of the value of exports over imports, and since for the other country ...
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123 views

Ricardian Model: Trade pattern rules (ch. 3 Krugman's book)

I'm reading chapter three of International Economics by Paul Krugman et al. I have two questions that are somewhat related. Question 1: Let $P_{c}$ = price of cheese, $P_{w}$ = price of wine, $a_{Lc}...