Questions tagged [international-trade]

International trade theory is a sub-field of economics which analyzes the patterns of international trade, its origins, and its welfare implications.

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Free trade and people pouring scorn on economists [on hold]

https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2015/oct/11/nobel-prize-economics-not-science-hubris-disaster Somewhere on the internet I run into a text like the one above. Stating that while economists ...
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Can tariffs be said to subsidise domestic industry?

If a state places a tariff on a good, domestic manufacturers of that good become more price-competitive in the domestic market at the expense of overseas suppliers. Could this be said to be a policy ...
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Does the gravity model of trade apply equally for goods and services?

Does the gravity model of trade apply equally for goods and services? Naively it would seem that the more ephemeral services would be less impacted by it?
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Is protectionism more suited to large economies?

Large economies like the US and China use tariffs as trade weapons while retaining competitiveness because they have the critical mass to encapsulate supply chains and avoid the cost of cross-border ...
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25 views

By what mechanism do large economies affect world price with tariffs?

Large economies can affect world prices by applying import tariffs. Is this because they definitionally comprise a substantial portion of global consumption, and hence by shifting production ...
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1answer
30 views

Are there economic models that predict (only) a medium/long-term negative effect of protectionism?

Going by some ECB models/estimates from last year, protectionism would result in negative consequences pretty fast, e.g. For illustration, I will use the results of simulations carried out by ECB ...
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Chinese tarriffs (pre-tradewar)

I am trying to understand to what degree tariffs (or other restrictions like quotas) were the cause of the trade imbalances between the US and China. One might imagine that it was simply a matter of ...
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1answer
29 views

According to the U.S., what constitutes as fair subsidies?

The U.S. asked China to do this during the trade negotiations: China immediately will cease providing market-distorting subsidies and other types of government support that can contribute to the ...
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2answers
35 views

Bond prices and Trade deficit

Why does the narrowing of trade deficit cause an increase in bond prices? I do understand that narrowing of trade deficit leads to narrowing of capital account surplus. Also, investor confidence ...
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13 views

Related Literature about Exports

I am working on my master thesis, where I investigate the impact of the Russian embargo on Georgia's exports. I have already identified my dependent variable, as well as the variables of interest. ...
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How does a budget deficit help grow a trade deficit?

What are the mechanism that explains this, and does this help explain the U.S.-China trade deficits?
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What are the hot topics (sub-fields) in the International-trade to pursue for the research work?

I am interested in trade economics. Suggest me some hot topics and authors in the field. Different dimensions of trade economics. Use of game theory, networks etc.
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Do countries have an obligation to match their savings and consumption rate with that of the U.S.?

https://www.barrons.com/articles/europe-is-now-a-bigger-trade-villain-than-china-51558118723 The above articles state that trade imbalances are a bad thing and that if a government doesn't enact ...
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Are there political economy models that include a “majority capture” of (protectionist) trade policy?

A highly cited model of protectionism is the "protection for sale" model or Grossman and Helpman. (For an [updated] evaluation of that model see for instance the Advanced International Trade textbook ...
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1answer
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International emissions trading

As far as I have understood emission right certificates are some kind of currency. Each company may emit as much of say CO2 as its certificates allow. Certificates may be traded, i.e. bought and sold. ...
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784 views

Why are trade deficits considered unfair?

President Trump has accused Germany and China of unfair trading practices over trade deficits. What is unfair about trade deficits? This may be economics 101, but in my naive eyes every time a ...
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2answers
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Is Iphone included in tariffs?

As the tariffs war getting escalating, I am curious about how the tariffs works on Iphone. Apple is an American company, and Iphone is its product. But manufactured by factory in China. Is there a ...
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why US don't like China trade deficit? [duplicate]

Because of the dollar, US basically have unlimited credit. US could simple print money for good. Why US don't like China trade deficit? If US is a person, and the person could use paper to exchange ...
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1answer
173 views

Heckscher-Ohlin trade model with non-homothetic preferences

$U^j = \prod^N_i \left(d^j_i-\bar{d}_i\right)^\oint$ where $d^j_i$ is the per capita consumption of good $i$ in any country $j$; $\bar{d}_i \geq 0$ denotes the minimum consumption of each good $i$, ...
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Is it unreasonable to expect a country with a large public deficit and the world's reserve currency to not run trade deficits with other countries?

I have heard that country trade deficits are primarily driven by excessive consumer spending and large public deficits, and that having the world's reserve currency means that you will have to run ...
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In practice, are retaliatory tariffs the first step (or among the first steps) in the WTO dispute resolution process?

In theory, retaliatory tariffs probably aren't first step in the WTO dispute resolution process. Instead, the dispute is supposed to go through consultations, which take some 6.6-months on average, ...
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Is IP theft more severe in China than in other developing countries?

Why is the media making such a big deal over IP theft in China if it's not more severe than in other developing countries? So is it the case that IP theft is more severe in China than in other ...
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1answer
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Are tariffs ever levied on services and does MFN apply?

I am interested in tariffs on services. Are tariffs ever levied on services and do most-favoured nation rules apply as they do with goods?
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Are there agreements in place between the EU and the US to facilitate trade in services?

What agreements are in place between the EU and the US to facilitate trade in services?
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141 views

How is trade in services conducted under the WTO in the absence of the Doha conclusion?

The Doha round of negotiations for the WTO had a focus on services, but that round has not been concluded. Does that mean that trade in services between trading partners without a preferential trade ...
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Definition of Heckscher-Ohlin free trade equilibrium

Does anyone know the mathematical definition of the Heckscher-Ohlin free trade equilibrium? Using real analysis methods!
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Discrepancy of GDP and International Transaction Releases for Exports

The Bureau of Economic Analysis ("BEA") provides consolidated data from several different government agencies. Currently they provide exports under both a Gross Domestic Product ("GDP") release as ...
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1answer
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Categorisation of Harmonised System codes for economic analysis

I work a lot with Harmonised System Codes (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harmonized_System). In a nutshell, the Harmonised System (HS) provides a way to record all goods based trade in and out of a ...
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1answer
64 views

World economy and world trade

What is the difference between the world economy and world trade? I have read in one book saying "US share in the world economy is 28% and in the world trade is 15%" (2008 edition though). Please ...
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1answer
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Would PPP adjustments between countries be irrelevant if all countries had the same relative prices?

I'm trying to understand the relationship, if any, between the fact that countries have different relative prices (e.g. different 'food price-to-general consumer prices' ratios) impacts the need for ...
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1answer
25 views

Is it correct to say that import tariffs are unilateral?

Is it correct to say that import tariffs are unilaterally decided by the nation or bloc applying the tariff?
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2answers
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Theory of Optimal Currency Areas

Should a country be more inclined or less inclined to join a currency union (common currency) under the following events: a) Increase in the size and frequency of AD shocks to the economy. b)...
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1answer
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With whom does the US have the largest deficit using the trade in value-added (TiVA) methodology?

The US has the largest gross trade deficit with China. But some economists have argued that this is misleading, e.g. using the iPhone as an example in which most parts don't orginate in China. There'...
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2answers
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GDP per capita and trade relationship

There's a lot of literature describing the relationship between growth and trade, but I'm not sure what conclusions I can draw from GDP per capita (specifically) and trade in one particular year for ...
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1answer
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What international payment systems do exist?

I recently read up on the Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunication (SWIFT). As faar as I understood it was up until recently the only provider of a system to exchange money ...
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1answer
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Are there internationally published sources of trade sanctions?

How to implement embargoes with respect to a trading company? Let's assume i am a small trading agent which assists and guides small exporters and importers while keeping embargoes and light ...
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1answer
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Where can I find a complete list of goods affected by NAFTA?

I am looking for the list of goods that NAFTA, preferably in the format of what is subject to tariff reduction. I have found a few potential leads, but none seem to be exhaustive: https://www....
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1answer
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Why does the EU need a clearing centre to circumvent US sanctions against Iran?

As reported here and elsewhere, the EU is considering the creation of a clearing house to keep trading with Iran despite US sanctions. Why is it not possible for the EU to conduct normal financial ...
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How can the “Share of merchandise imports at current PPPs” be negative?

I'm looking at the Penn World Table 9.0 data, and find that the "Share of merchandise imports at current PPPs" (csh_m) can be negative. For example, ...
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1answer
424 views

Balance of Trade - Currency devaluation in a price taker economy

How will a real exchange rate devaluation affect Balance of Trade, if an economy is a price taker in world markets for both export and import?
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1answer
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A valid argument against free trade?

Recently I read Bertrand Russell's Political Ideals (1917). Although he expresses strong left-wing ideals there, he supports free trade and criticizes protectionism. It seems that not any left-wing ...
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“Increasing trade barriers causes a country’s currency to appreciate”?

Mishkin (2016, p. 476) writes: Barriers to free trade such as tariffs (taxes on imported goods) and quotas (restrictions on the quantity of foreign goods that can be imported) can affect the ...
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The Relationship Between Public and Private Debt

In this video, David Graeber says that if the public sector goes into a surplus, then the private sector must go into a deficit, in equivalent proportion. Is this true? Wouldn't this be complicated by ...
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Net capital outflow = Net exports (Net capital imports)?

They say Net Capital Outflow equals to Net Exports(S-I=NX). And they say also that Net Exports is nothing but the Net Capital Imports. Then how come "Net Capital Imports" is same with the "Net Capital ...
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1answer
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Question about tariffs in Henry Hazlitt's Economics in One lesson

I've been reading Henry Hazlitt's Economics in One Lesson and he said something about free trade and tariffs that I don't quite understand. He uses the example of buying cheaper English sweaters ...
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1answer
133 views

Why does capital flight cause inflation?

Context: I was watching a video about Venezuela, and, it all started with capital flight due to poor confidence in the government. The government tried to stop it, and in the process it created a ...
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1answer
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Is an EU single currency still a trade advantage in 2019?

When the single currency was planned, there was no internet and there all currency exchange was manual. Today the web can automatically convert prices using multiplication of the numbers in the ...
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1answer
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Is Universal Basic Income compatible with free international trade?

If one country introduces UBI, what prevents other countries from taking advantage of that and supplying cheaper (no need to finance a UBI scheme!) goods to the original country and outcompeting the ...
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why doesn't every country scale up the prices to the international level?

I live in an Asian country in which the average monthly salary is maybe 300-400 dollars but things (apart from exported goods like laptops or smartphones) are reasonably cheap compared to their price ...